Ch_322a_6.013

Ch_322a_6.013 - Carbocations Early in the last century,...

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Carbocations Early in the last century, carbocations began to be postulated as intermediates in many organic chemical reactions. By the mid-twentieth century, the indirect mechanistic evidence for their existence was overwhelming. In the early 1960s, George Olah and his coworkers and others developed methods to directly observe carbocations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. George Olah received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1994 for this and other discoveries.
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The Structure of Carbocations Carbocations are trivalent carbon species with a positive charge . R 3 C + Carbocations are locally planar with the three valences in a plane. C R R R + A trigonal planar geometry is predicted by VSEPR theory.
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C + sp 2 hybridization sp 2 p z C + sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 hybridization a planar geometry a nonplanar geometry The six valence level electrons reside in atomic orbitals that use 100% of the lower energy 2s orbital. The six
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2009 for the course CHEM 322AL taught by Professor Jung during the Summer '07 term at USC.

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Ch_322a_6.013 - Carbocations Early in the last century,...

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