Ch_322a_10.01

Ch_322a_10.01 - Chapter 10 Radical Reactions Heterolytic...

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Chapter 10 Radical Reactions Heterolytic and Homolytic Bond Breaking So far, all the organic reaction mechanisms examined involve heterolytic bond breaking where ions are reactants, intermediates, or products. These reactions form a very large (and more common) category of mechanisms in organic chemistry. A second important type of organic reaction mechanism involves homolytic bond breaking where free radicals are key intermediates. A free radical has an unpaired electron in the valence shell. It is often uncharged, but radical cations and radical anions also exist.
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Free Radicals by Homolytic Bond Breaking Bond Homolysis A:B A + B . . Note: single-barbed arrows show movement of one electron. Some Examples of Free Radicals Cl : : . chlorine atom or radical H-C-H H . methyl radical H-O . hydroxyl radical
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Generation of Free Radicals Free radicals are produced by homolytic bond dissociation. Energy in the form of heat, ultraviolet-visible light, or some other form is needed to break a covalent bond. There are several types of covalent
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Ch_322a_10.01 - Chapter 10 Radical Reactions Heterolytic...

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