Ch_322b_12.01

Ch_322b_12.01 - Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds.

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Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds. Oxidation-Reduction and Organometallic Compounds. Introduction The carbonyl group is found in several functional groups: C=O : R H C=O R R' C=O R HO C=O :: R R'O aldehyde ketone carboxylic acid ester By one or more steps, alcohols may be transformed into these types of compounds, and, in turn, these functional groups may be transformed into alcohols. CHOH R R' C=O R R' oxidation reduction The synthetic methods for carrying out these transformations are described in this chapter.
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The Carbonyl Group The bonding in the carbonyl group may be described in terms of combining atomic orbitals of sp 2 hybridized carbon and oxygen atoms. C sp 2 p z valence-level electrons O sp 2 p z valence-level electrons C p z O p z nonbonding electron pairs sp 2 sp 2 In-phase combination of the half-filled atomic orbitals provides the bonding orbitals of the carbonyl group.
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C p z O p z nonbonding electron pairs sp 2 sp 2 C O !" bond # - bond C O ! - bond "# bond C O : 120 o 120 o The carbonyl group is locally planar.
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2009 for the course CHEM 322AL taught by Professor Jung during the Summer '07 term at USC.

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Ch_322b_12.01 - Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds.

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