Lecture+9-3-08_Earthquakes

Lecture+9-3-08_Earthquakes - Note the apparent left-lateral...

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EARTHQUAKES: GEOLOGIC AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES ES10 Introduction to Environmental Sciences
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Earthquakes concentrated in certain zones – boundaries between rigid plates.
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Gondwanaland and its breakup
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The ‘focus’ ( focal point ) is where rupture along the fault begins, and from which seismic waves emanate outward. The point on the earth’s surface above the focal point is the epicenter .
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How a seismograph works
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Richter Magnitude -amplitude of ground motion produced by earthquake at a standard distance from the epicenter -logarithmic scale -Energy released goes up 30 x with each unit Contrast with Intensity -a measure of earthquake effects -Mercali Intensity Scale
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These Santa Cruz mountain residents were briefly famous for the crack in their driveway in Oct 1989
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When our environmental geology class visited two weeks later, the crack had been filled – you’d never know! But if you turned around…
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The crack was still there. It continued under the road.
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The crack created a 1-ft dropoff in the road surface.
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Unformatted text preview: Note the apparent left-lateral offset. This reflects local shifting of blocks relative to one another, not the sense of fault movement. Landslides triggered by the 1987 earthquake in the Andes of Ecuador The dawn of the disclosure statement Don’t forget: when the plates move, there are earthquakes!! But despite earthquake inevitability, human tend towards denial. Jan 1994 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 One year later, the Kobe earthquake – very similar situation to SF Bay – but dropped off the front pages immediately After the 1906 earthquake and fire. In effect, our cities have been constructed in the interval between major earthquakes. Below: modern Athens A different attitude among native Americans in SE Alaska and British Columbia. Big quakes every 100-200 years. Cultural adaptations included sturdy log structures that would not fail in earthquakes, and annual earthquake rituals, with dances to simulate earthquake shaking...
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Lecture+9-3-08_Earthquakes - Note the apparent left-lateral...

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