Lecture+10-17-08+Rahman+Lecture+Notes - UNIVERSITY OF...

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1 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY PROF MATT KONDOLF CLASS, FALL 2008 FRESHWATER ISSUES INCLUDING URBAN WATER, SANITAION, URBAN STORM RUNOFF, RIVER/STREAM RESTORATION, ETC. IN ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED COUNTRIES Ausaf Rahman , 40733 Laguna Place, Fremont, California 94539, Tele: 510-226-1740, Fax: 510-573- 1740, E. Mail: ausafrahman@comcast.net , arahman@ohlone.edu My E. Mail is the most unreliable way to communicate with me. My order of preference for communication is: Personal visits, Telephone, E. Mail. PRESENTATION OUTLINE These are basically my ideas that I have jotted down to guide my presentation. They reflect my background and experience, which I’ll share with you. This is by no means comprehensive, as I had to leave out a whole lot of details. Most of my information and research is from Asian countries. The problems and solutions I discuss have universal application. Unfortunately my international experience is that the USA is not concerned with world problems if it does not benefit USA. Most of my discussion therefore may not be applicable to the reality that exists in USA, but that is the reality for more than ¾ of world population and that is what I have been involved with. INTRODUCTION ISSUES THAT AFFECT FRESH WATER IN URBAN PLANNING OF MANY CITIES OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED COUNTRIES Water stresses in economically deprived countries Global hydrologic cycle and water use by humans Global fresh water availability, total and recycled, residence time. Human demand for fresh water; globally humans are using 6 times their share of fresh water Water rich, Economically poor Water rich, Economically rich W A T E R S T A T U S Water poor, Economically poor Water poor, Economically rich E C O N O M I C S T A T U S Water stress indices: Falkenmark indices: water stress 1700m 3 /person/year; chronic water scarcity 1000 m 3 /person/year; absolute scarcity 461 m 3 /person/year Sectorial water use is related to economic development Sectorial use, Global. Domestic: industrial: agriculture = 8-9%: 20-22%: 70-71 Economically deprived. Urban : agricultural = <5% : >95% (industrial ?) Economically affluent. Urban : agriculture = >50% : <50% Pakistan. Domestic: industrial: agriculture = 2 :1 : 97 (renewable supply = 1,812 m 3 /person/year USA. Domestic: industrial: agriculture = 8 : 65 : 27 (renewable supply = 10,574 m 3 /p/year WATER FOR URBAN USE IS UNDER GREAT STRESS ALL OVER, ESPECIALLY IN WATER AND ECONOMICALLY POORER COUNTRIES. Issues of freshwater and sanitation cannot be separated . Humans consume less than half of 18000 km 3 of water annually and contaminate the remaining to the extent that it can be used by anyone. Water for environment only after human demands are satisfied
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Lecture+10-17-08+Rahman+Lecture+Notes - UNIVERSITY OF...

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