Lecture+10-24-08_Landscape+Ecology+and+Madagascar

Lecture+10-24-08_Landscape+Ecology+and+Madagascar -...

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Unformatted text preview: Habitat, Biodiversity, and Landscape Ecology of Madagascar Clare ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE O'Reilly, October 2008 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY OVERVIEW Habitat Biodiversity Landscape Ecology Madagascar HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT What is habitat? Resources and conditions present in an area that produce occupancy (including survival and reproduction) by an organism. HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT What is habitat? Biotic Factors: 1) Vegetation: food and cover (climate, escape, breeding) 2) Other organisms: food and reproduction Abiotic Factors: 3) Water: drinking, cleaning 4) Climate: temperature, wind, sun exposure 5) Proximity & permeability HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT What is habitat? Structure: spatial pattern or arrangement of landscape elements Functioning: movement and flows of animals, plants, water, wind, materials, and energy through the structure Change: dynamics or alteration in spatial pattern and functioning over time HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT What is habitat? Just because a targeted species is absent doesn't mean the habitat is absent. HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY BIODIVERSITY What is biodiversity? "A definition of biodiversity that is altogether simple, comprehensive, and fully operational ... is unlikely to be found." (Noss, 1990) "Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur" (US Congress of Technology Assessment) "1) the number of different native species and individuals in a habitat or geographical area; 2) the variety of different habitats within an area; 3) the variety of interactions that occur between different species in a habitat; and 4) the range of genetic variation among individuals within a species." (Jones and Stokes Associates) HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY BIODIVERSITY What defines the diversity of a given community? Species richness: the number of species in a community. Species evenness: the relative abundance of species HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY What is landscape ecology? Landscape = mosaic over which particular land ecosystems and land-used occur Ecology = study of interactions among organisms and their environment Landscape ecology = ecology of landscapes! The study of distribution patterns of communities and ecosystems, ecological processes that affect those patterns, and changes in pattern and process over time. HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Components of landscape ecology 1) Patch: A relatively homogenous unit and non-linear unit of the landscape that differs from its surroundings 2) Corridor: A strip of a particular type that differs from the adjacent land on both sides 3) Mosaic: arrangement of landscape elements in juxtaposition to one another Patch Corridor Mosaic Forman and Godron, 1986 Forman, 1995 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches Patch edge Patch interior Small Intermediate Large HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches A large patch is likely to have more habitats present, and therefore contain greater number of species than a small patch. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches The probability of species becoming locally extinct is greater if a patch is small or of low habitat quality. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches Large patches of natural vegetation are best for protecting stream networks, sustaining populations of interior species, providing core habitat and escape cover, and allowing for natural disturbances. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches Small patches that interrupt stretches of a matrix serve as stepping stones for movement. They can also contain uncommon species. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: patches Species extinction is more likely in isolated patches. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: edges Patch edges act as filters, which can buffer the surroundings on the patch interior. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: edges Most natural edges are curvy and non-linear, while most human-created edges are straight, simple, and hard. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: edges A straight edge tends to have species movement along it, while a convoluted boundary is more likely to have movement across it. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: corridors A row of small patches can make a stepping stone corridor. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: corridors Loss of a single small patch can inhibit movement of species, which can increase patch isolation. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: corridors Human-made corridors can serve as barriers that subdivide populations. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: corridors Streams make excellent corridors, especially when they have adequate buffers on each side. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Patterns and trends: matrix Fragmentation decreases the total amount of a particular habitat type. Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY APPLICATIONS Planning a park or development 1) Conservation area 2) Passive use/buffer 3) Active use Dramstad et al., 1996 HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY CHALLENGES Planning for wildlife Single species or multiple species? Competing land uses Fragmentation Nuisance wildlife HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Landscape Ecology of Madagascar HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Where is Madagascar? http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Southern_Africa.htm HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY What is so cool about Madagascar? Madagascar is a "biodiversity hotspot" because of the wide variety of ecosystems, including plants and animals, found there and only there. The geological separation of this mini-continent from the Gondwanaland supercontinent 160 million years ago makes Madagascar a "living example of species evolution in isolation." HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Where are the habitat types? Primary rainforest - highest mountain elevations farthest away from human disturbance, primarily in eastern mountain range and northern part of the country Secondary rainforest - lower mountain elevations where rainforest has had chance to grow back after human disturbance Grasslands - central highlands and areas that used to be primary rainforest Dry forest - inland from coastal edges and low elevations Spiny desert south western coastal to inland area Mangroves central northern to northwest coastal edges What lives in these ecosystems? HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Primary Rainforest HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Golden Bamboo Lemur Tree Fern HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Orchids HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Secondary Rainforest HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Secondary Succession HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Grasslands and Savanna HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Eucalyptus HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Dry Forest HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Baobab Tree Verraux's Sifaka HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Ring Tailed Lemur HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Spiny Desert HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Mangroves HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Other cool stuff... HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Rice production HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Illegal Species Trade HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Questions? HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY HABITAT, BIODIVERSITY, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ...
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This document was uploaded on 07/22/2009.

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