Ch 17 Blood

Ch 17 Blood - Ch 17: Blood I. Functions of blood A....

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Ch 17: Blood I. Functions of blood A. Transport – gases, nutrients, hormones, dissolved wastes C. Hemostasis – prevention of blood loss D. Defense – against harmful invaders E. Thermoregulation – mobile heat sink II. Composition of blood A. Plasma = 55% volume of a sample of whole blood 1. Plasma proteins a. Albumin - Most abundant (60% plasma vol) Fn = maintenance osmotic pressure b. Globulins (35% plasma vol) – hormones, Abs, transport proteins c. Fibrinogen (4%) – Fns in blood clotting when activated to fibrin Serum=plasma minus Fibrinogen/fibrin d. Regulatory proteins (<1%) – proenzymes, more hormones 2. Other solutes b. Nutrients used for making ATP, cell growth etc: Fatty acids, cholesterol, CHOs(glucose), amino acids. c. Organic wastes - Generated by protein metabolism, etc. Urea, Uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, NH4+ B. Formed Elements = 45% volume of a sample of whole blood 1. Red blood cells = erythrocytes = 99% volume of formed elements a. Fn = oxygen transport b. Hematocrit = % vol taken up by packed cells ----> mainly measures red cells 2. White blood cells = leukocytes = <1% vol of formed elements a. Fn = body defenses b. 2 classes of WBCs: 1. Granulocytes – visible cytoplasmic granules a. Neutrophil aka PMNs aka polys – most abundant (50-70%) First responder to infection or injury site Microphage, cytotoxic b. Eosinophil (2-4% WBCs) – active against multi-cellular parasites c. Basophil (<1%) releases vasodilators that stimulate inflammation 2. Agranulocytes – no visible granules in cytoplasm a. Monocytes – largest WBCs (2-8%) Become macrophages when activated b. Lymphocytes (20-30% WBCs) = cells of immune response inflammation C. Characteristics of Whole blood 1. Total blood volume = 0.7 x body wgt (Kg) a. Male ~ 5-6 liters b. Female ~ 4-5 liters 2. Temperature ~ 38 o C/100.4 o F 3. Viscosity ~ 5 ( H 2 O=1) ---> blood is 5x thicker than water (formed elements 4. pH of arterial blood is between 7.35 to 7.45, or ~7.4 on average
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A. Site 2. Bone marrow after 5 th month thru adulthood B. Pathways/Lineages 1. Stem cell for all = Hemocytoblast /\ / \ 2. Myeloid stem cells 3. Lymphoid stem cells (Lymphoblasts)-->Lymphocytes a. RBCs (Erythroblasts) b. Platelets (Megakaryocytes) c. Granulocytes (Myeloblasts) Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils d. Monocytes (Monoblasts) IV. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) A. Function of RBCs = transport of O 2 from lungs to tissues ----->Hematocrit a measure of O 2 -carrying capacity blood Decreased O 2 -carrying capacity (for any reason) = Anemia 1. 4 major types of anemia a. Hemmorhagic --->excessive blood loss b. Aplastic ---> no new RBCs from bone marrow
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This note was uploaded on 07/23/2009 for the course BIOL 1141 taught by Professor Loripaul during the Summer '09 term at UMSL.

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Ch 17 Blood - Ch 17: Blood I. Functions of blood A....

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