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31 BIO 326R Virology intro

31 BIO 326R Virology intro - BIO 326R Virology Viruses...

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BIO 326R Virology
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Viruses Genetic material surrounded by a protective coat Nucleic acid may be DNA or RNA, but not both May be double or single-stranded Protective coat Enveloped – virion must stay wet to maintain viability, sensitive to heat, pH Tend to be less contagious since viral particle is less stable Most (all?) viruses that cause lifelong/chronic infections are enveloped (but not all enveloped viruses setup lifelong infections) Envelope derived from host cell membrane due to “budding” reproduction. Despite this they frequently cause the death of the host cell Non-enveloped – virion resistant to dryness, heat, pH, detergents Usually reproduce through lysis Tend to be more contagious, able to spread through aerosols, fomites Fomite : inanimate object that may harbor infectious agent (e.g. splinters, dirt, doorknobs, bullets, knives… ) Obligate intracellular parasites Hijacking of host machinery can make therapeutic targets hard to find Filterable (small) i.e. they will pass through a 0.22 micron filter. Cells won’t.
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Viral Structure Viruses are very small, typically 100nm or less Part of the definition of viruses is that they are “filterable,” this means they can pass through a 0.2 micron filter (a filter that excludes anything larger than 0.2x10 -6 M You can fit a few hundred million viral particles on the head of a pin Envelopes and capsids An envelope is a lipid membrane derived from the host Enveloped viruses are less stable than non-enveloped viruses (non-enveloped viruses are sometimes call naked viruses) Some viral particles have no associated proteins, ie an
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