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32 BIO 326R Vaccines - BIO 326R Vaccines Vaccines Passive...

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BIO 326R Vaccines
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Vaccines Passive immunization Use of exogenous antibody for temporary protection (i.e. antibody is not made by host B cells, but from some other source). No memory response. Protection is only temporary Maternal IgG for fetus Mother’s milk IgA for newborn Emergency protection against known exposure Hepatitis, antivenom Immunodeficiency Active immunization – what we’re focusing on Use of antigen in some form to invokes host immune response. Most vaccines are only useful as a preventive measure Administration following infection is usually not effective – the exceptions are diseases that progress very slowly (e.g. rabies, tetanus)
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Inactivated vs. live vaccines A live vaccine consists of an active viable agent (usually a virus) Pathogenicity is (hopefully…) reduced in some way Sabin polio vaccine Inactivated vaccines are non-viable immunogens derived from the pathogen Whole killed virus or bacteria (usually virus) Subunits (individual proteins, glycoproteins or groups of proteins) Toxins, toxoids (tetanus) Salk polio vaccine
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Inactivated vaccines Produced by inactivation of pathogen or its components Formalin Heat Toxoids (inactivated toxin)/subunits - recombinant production or collection from animal Polio (Salk version), hepatitis A, influenza and rabies are currently inactivated vaccines Influenza changes yearly Large amount of antigen (protein, glycoprotein) needed, booster shots often required Polysaccharides vs. protein based Capsular polysaccharides are used for some bacteria (Streptoccus) Tend to be T-independent antigens and do not produce great memory – Streptococcus vaccine works fairly well, however (PPV – pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine)
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Inactivated vaccines Disadvantages Response tends to be TH2 rather than TH1, little or no mucosal IgA production Memory response limited: Boosters needed (more than one shot), or very large amounts of antigen needed (older rabies vaccine). Failure to raise protective immunity is higher than seen with attenuated vaccines. Failure in inactivation and immunization with virulent virus e.g. someone didn’t kill the virus/bacteria sufficiently before it was administered Advantages Gives sufficient humoral immunity if boosters given Very safe: No chance of mutation or reversion, can be used with immunodeficient patients Note that immunodeficient patients are less likely to raise a protective response Stability, shelf-life (less need for refrigeration)
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Live vaccines Attenuated or non-virulent version of pathogen or related virus from different species Shares antigens with pathogen Cowpox – smallpox Usually made by serial passage of virus in tissue culture Advantage is that immune response more closely resembles natural course of disease
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