Hybridization

# Hybridization - Hybridization mixing of two or more atomic orbitals to form a new set of hybrid orbitals 1 Mix at least 2 nonequivalent atomic

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Hybridization – mixing of two or more atomic orbitals to form a new set of hybrid orbitals. 1. Mix at least 2 nonequivalent atomic orbitals ( e.g. s and p). Hybrid orbitals have very different shape from original atomic orbitals. 2. Number of hybrid orbitals is equal to number of pure atomic orbitals used in the hybridization process. 3. Covalent bonds are formed by: a. Overlap of hybrid orbitals with atomic orbitals b. Overlap of hybrid orbitals with other hybrid orbitals 10.4
Hybrid Orbitals Leaving out the math, we can say that an imaginary mixing process converts a set of atomic orbitals to a new set of hybrid atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals . At this level, we consider the following hybrid orbitals: sp sp 2 sp 3 sp 3 d sp 3 d 2

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Formation of sp Hybrid Orbitals 10.4
sp hybrid atomic orbitals are possible states of electron in an atom, especially when it is bonded to others. These electron states have half 2 s and half 2 p characters. From a mathematical view point, there are two ways to combine the 2 s and 2 p atomic orbitals: sp 1 = 2 s + 2 p (yellow) sp 2 = 2 s - 2 p (green) These energy states ( sp 1 and sp 2 ) have a region of high electron probability each, and the two atomic orbitals are located opposite to each other, centered on the atom. The sp hybrid orbitals are represented by this photograph. A molecule that is sp hybridized has a steric number of 2 meaning that it has 2 regions of electron density either as bonds or lone pairs. H-Be-H

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## This note was uploaded on 07/24/2009 for the course CHEM 45434 taught by Professor Michael during the Spring '09 term at Cosumnes River College.

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Hybridization - Hybridization mixing of two or more atomic orbitals to form a new set of hybrid orbitals 1 Mix at least 2 nonequivalent atomic

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