Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Organic Chemistry g y Structure and Function...

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Organic Chemistry Structure and Function Fifth Edition W. H. Freeman & Company ew York New York Peter C Vollhardt K. Peter C. Vollhardt Neil E. Schore
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CHAPTER 1 tructure and Bonding in Organic Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules
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The Scope of Organic Chemistry: An Overview 1-1 e Scope o O ga c C e st y O e e •Functional groups determine the reactivity of organic molecules. lkanes o functional groups only carbon and hydrogen •Alkanes – No functional groups, only carbon and hydrogen. (Chapter 2) •Alkane Reactions – Alkane bond strengths and reactions. hapter 3) (Chapter 3) •Cyclic Alkanes – New properties and changes in reactivity (Chapter 4) •Stereoisomerism – Same connectivity – different relative positioning of substituents in space (Chapter 5) •Haloalkanes – Substitution Reactions and Elimination Reactions (Chapters 6 and 7) •Alkynes – C-C triple bonds (Chapter 13) • ldehydes and Ketones arbonyl Compounds – =O double Aldehydes and Ketones Carbonyl Compounds CO d o u b l e bonds. (Chapters 16 and 17)
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The Scope of Organic Chemistry: An Overview 1-1 e Scope o O ga c C e st y O e e •Amines – Nitrogen containing functional group (Chapter 21) ools For Identification pectroscopy (Chapters 10 11 14 and •Tools For Identification – Spectroscopy (Chapters 10, 11, 14 and 20) •Carbohydrates and Amino Acids – Multiple Functional Groups hapters 24 and 26) (Chapters 24 and 26)
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The Scope of Organic Chemistry: An Overview 1-1 e Scope o O ga c C e st y O e e •Synthesis is the making of new molecules öhler’s Synthesis of Urea: •Wöhler s Synthesis of Urea: •Synthesis – Construct complex organic chemicals from simpler, more readily available ones (Chapter 8). •Reactions are the vocabulary, and mechanisms are the grammar of organic chemistry •Reactants (Substrates) – Starting compounds •Products •Reaction Mechanism – Underlying details of a reaction •Reaction Intermediate – Chemical species formed and then destroyed on the pathway between reactants and products.
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oulomb Forces: A Simplified View of Bonding 1-2 Cou o b o ces S p ed e o o d g Bonds are made by simultaneous coulombic attraction and lectron exchange. electron exchange. When two atoms approach, the electrons of one are attracted by the protons of the other and vice-versa. 2 (+) charge ( ) charge Attracting Force = constant istance ×− × distance Energy is released as the two atoms approach each other. When the atoms get too close together the energy begins to ggg y g rise again due to repulsions between the two nuclei and the two sets of electrons.
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This minimum energy is called the bond strength , and the distance between the two nuclei at this point is called the bond length .
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Ionic and Covalent Bonds: The Octet Rule 1-3 1. Covalent Bonds are based on the sharing of electrons.
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Chapter 1 - Organic Chemistry g y Structure and Function...

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