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ch06_0495556718_164044 - epidemics(such as AIDS by losses...

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Chapter 6 The Human Population and Its Impact Summary 1. Birth, death, fertility, and migration rates are the factors that determine population size. As birth rates have declined in developed countries, population has increased due to people’s migrating into these countries. Women’s fertility rates have dropped but are still above the replacement-level fertility around the world. 2. Population size is profoundly affected by age structure. If women are past their primary child-bearing ages, population increase will be limited. If, however, the population has a large percentage of young women entering their childbearing years, the potential for large population increases is present. In general, the closer a country’s young women are to 15–40 years of age, the more potential for a rapidly increasing population. 3. We can influence population size by encouraging smaller families, by encouraging adoption of children already born and discouraging new births. Population size is, also, affected by health care or its lack; by
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Unformatted text preview: epidemics (such as AIDS); by losses through war, etc. Lack of prenatal care for expectant mothers, failure to protect children from communicable diseases (like measles) or wide-spread diseases (like malaria), can contribute to a smaller population. In the past economic development, family planning, and economic opportunities for women have reduced birth rates. 4. India and China have both made efforts to control their population growth. China has been more successful because, as a dictatorship, it has imposed restrictions on family size with rewards and punishments for those who support or defy the government’s direction. India, without a policy of coercion, has reduced its birth rate; but the wish for male children and several children for the care of old parents has helped to maintain a growing population. 5. Effective methods for slowing the growth of world population include investing in family planning, reducing poverty, and elevating the status of women....
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