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ch17_0495556718_164055 - 4 The types of disease threatening...

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Chapter 17 Environmental Hazards and Human Health Summary 1. Major types of hazards faced by humans include cultural, physical, chemical, and biological hazards. 2. Toxicology is the scientific field that measures the degree of harm a hazardous agent can cause. Scientists measure toxicity based on dosage, solubility, persistence, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and chemical interactions. 3. Chemical hazards include agents that are flammable or explosive, damage or irritate lungs or skin, interrupt oxygen uptake, and cause allergies. Chemical hazards are defined by their toxicity, the person’s acute and chronic reactions to it, and its pervasiveness in the environment.
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Unformatted text preview: 4. The types of disease threatening people in developing countries are primarily infectious diseases of childhood, while those threatening people in developed countries tend to be chronic diseases of adults, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and respiratory conditions. 5. Risks can be estimated, managed, and reduced by identifying hazards, evaluating related risks (risk assessment), ranking risks (comparative risk analysis), determining alternative solutions, making decisions about reducing risks (risk management), and informing decision-makers about risk (risk communication)....
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