The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment - /The Enlightenment/M.6.29.09...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
//The Enlightenment//M.6.29.09 Geo-political factors in Europe before and during the 18th century A traditional, pre-Enlightenment view of the world A traditional, pre-Enlightenment view of humanity and its history Ibn al-Haytham (965-c. 1040 CE), Arab scientist o “With eyes wide open” o Europe 1700 (map) The Authority of Scripture Ibn al-Haytham (965-c. 10140 CE) Question: When you look at something, light comes out of the eyeball or into the eyeball? o Ibn al-Haytham tried to prove his point by having a friend go stare at the sun. o This is known as the empirical method (aka scientific method). The empirical method o Inductive reasoning, John Locke (1632-1704) o Vs. Deductive reasoning o Rene Descarte (1596-1650) and Rationalism : Truth ala Descartes: Our innate ideas are true, because God put them there, and God would not give us ideas that are false. o Deductive Reasoning: From the universal and established to the specific Example (Religion): God said, “Thou shalt not kill,” so please do not shoot me. Example (Diagnostic Medicine): high fever, sore throat, and pustules in the mouth indicate streptococcus infection. You have all these symptoms. Therefore you have strep throat. o Inductive Reasoning: From the individual to the universal Example (Physics): apples, becoming detached from the tree, fall to the ground. Therefore there is a universal force that pulls things to earth. o John Locke (1632-1704) and Empiricism : The mind according to Locke : The is in its primeval state. It is a “white paper, void of all characters.” No innate (natural) ideas. The mind has an ordering faculty. The age of scientific discovery o Copernicus (1473-1543) o Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) o Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) o Galileo (1564-1642) o Isaac Newton (1642-1727) o Nicolaus Steno (1638-1686) A new way of looking at the world, humanity, its history o Reason as the equalizer o Science begins to challenge religion o Human-centered universe //Social Contract Theory// W.7.1.09 Hobbes vs. Locke vs. Rousseau o (Page references are to texts reproduced in the reader.)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
o Before the theory of political legitimacy : (the law of the land was) my father ruled and the god gave me the right. Except: Great Britain – since Magna Carta, it put parliament in charge. Hobbes o The state of nature certain short comings need to come out a with a purely secular (worldly) agreement. o Rules at the pleasure of the government, they give over their consent, there to discard their old ideas, where political legitimacy is because of “my dad” John Locke (1632-1704) o King James V is ignoring the will of parliament o Refers to the Glorious Revolution, replaced with the couple William and Mary , brought to Great Britain to be the new king and queen Placed on the throne temporarily William and Mary were compelt to accept a document a Bill of Rights that the kings must submit to the
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 07/26/2009 for the course MMW 656386 taught by Professor Cassedy during the Summer '09 term at UCSD.

Page1 / 5

The Enlightenment - /The Enlightenment/M.6.29.09...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online