Lecture W 4-22

Lecture W 4-22 - Lecture W 4/22 1. Khyber Pass 2. Kushans...

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Lecture W 4/22 1. Khyber Pass 2. Kushans 50-240 A.D. - run the Gandhara region o Emperor Kanishka = in contact with both Rome and China. o Gandhara province = on caravan routes from Asia to Mediterranean o Mathura (city on river) connects searoute to China with landroute west 3. Racial types in Gandhara sculpture (pics) o Scythian o Greek o Asian 4. Lintel in Mathura showing travelers (pic) 5. Importance of trade: o o Local merchant /artisan guilds = patrons of culture and religion: esp. Buddhism (why?) rejection of sacrifice (reinvest > waste) rejection of caste restrictions (more practical for travelers) monasteries offer rest-stop for traveling merchants, who in turn endow monasteries as stopping-place for travelers, areas near monasteries = trade ctrs 6. Kushans (through importance of commercial class) became Buddhist. o 3rd-9th centuries A.D. : Chinese pilgrims come to India as source of spiritual wisdom (roots of Buddhism) o Kanishka’s tower = Buddhist shrine = model for pagodas 7. Hsuan-Tsang (Xuanzang) returns to China with Buddhist mss. (7th c.) 8. Gandhara produced the first sculpted images of the Buddha , Influenced by Greek sculpture
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o “Greco-Buddhist art” or “Gandhara art” : Kushan patronage + Greek form + Buddhist content o Early Buddhist images= symbols, not images of the Buddha (pic) tree throne footprints 9. Gandhara Greco-Buddhist statues of the Buddha 10. Gandhara seated Buddhas (2nd-3rd c.) 11. “Hinayana ” (lesser vehicle) : o Focused on the original teachings of the Buddha o The Buddha = a teacher but not an object of worship 12. “Mahayana ” (greater vehicle) : o Produces new sutras / teachings by later Buddhists o Emphasizes compassion: “bodhisattvas” (cf saints) o Views the Buddha as a divine being who will reappear as Maitreya in the new cycle of time o Develops a cult (offerings, prayers) of the Buddha and the bodhisattvas 13. Mahayana Buddhism = syncretic
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This note was uploaded on 07/26/2009 for the course MMW 654321 taught by Professor Smarr during the Spring '09 term at UCSD.

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Lecture W 4-22 - Lecture W 4/22 1. Khyber Pass 2. Kushans...

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