{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Unstable_Resistance_Exercises

Unstable_Resistance_Exercises - UNSTABLE RESISTANCE...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
UNSTABLE RESISTANCE EXERCISES Jeffrey M. Willardson, PhD, CSCS This paper was presented as part of the NSCA Hot Topic Series. All information contained herein is copyright© of the NSCA. www.nsca-lift.org
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Hot Topics: Unstable Resistance Exercises www.nsca-lift.org 2 Resistance exercise has been recognized as an essential component of a comprehensive training program for all athletes (1, 3). The types of resistance exercises performed are dictated by the specific physiological and biomechanical demands of a sport or position within a sport (1, 3, 18, 25). In recent years, there has been increased emphasis on performing resistance exercises in unstable body positions. Because sports skills are often performed in unstable body positions, (i.e. running forehand in tennis, baseball pitcher wind-up, shooting a puck while balancing on a single skate blade in hockey), these types of resistance exercises have been widely promoted as being sports specific (7, 9, 12, 19, 22, 24). Resistance exercises performed in unstable body positions have been hypothesized to increase the muscular strength and muscular endurance of the core musculature, which may translate to more powerful and efficient movement patterns and less risk of injury (7, 9, 12, 19, 22, 24). The term “core” is used to collectively describe a group of muscles that stabilize the lumbar spine and pelvis. Some of these muscles include: the rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, internal and external oblique, erector spinae, and multifidi (5, 10, 14, 21). Hodges and Richardson (14) demonstrated that when subjects performed a unilateral shoulder movement, the transversus abdominis was the first of the trunk muscles to become active, and this activation occurred prior to the onset of actual limb movement. This study suggests that for the throwing athlete, core stability would be important as force is transferred from the ground, up through the lower extremities, across the trunk, and out to the throwing arm. Several factors determine the extent to which stability is challenged when performing a resistance exercise. The stability demands of resistance exercises can be increased through modifications in the base of support (stable surface versus unstable surface), body position (seated versus standing), the type of equipment used (machines versus free weights), or how the exercise is performed (unilateral versus bilateral) (2, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 21). Research has demonstrated increased muscle activation in the core musculature consequent to performing resistance exercises on unstable surfaces. For example, Cosio-Lima, Reynolds, Winter, Paolone, and Jones (10) demonstrated that untrained women significantly improved core muscle activity and static balance to a greater extent by performing Swiss ball exercises versus conventional floor exercises. Vera-Garcia, Grenier, and McGill (21) demonstrated that untrained men approximately doubled abdominal muscle activity when a curl-up was performed on a Swiss ball versus a stable bench. Behm, Leonard, Young,
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern