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Unformatted text preview: Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of organic molecules. # of Carbons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prefix Meth Eth Prop But Pent Hex Hept Oct Non Dec CH 4 = Meth ane CH 3 CH 3 = Eth ane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 = Prop ane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 = But ane C 5 H 12 = Pent ane C 6 H 14 = Hex ane C 7 H 16 = Hept ane C 8 H 18 = Oct ane C 9 H 20 = Non ane C 10 H 22 = Dec ane *General Formula: C n H 2n + 2 Table 1.1: Names of the ten simplest alkanes B. Alkanes: Branched-Chains The straight simple-chain alkanes have simple names and can be easily memorized, but the branched-chain alkanes require a set of simple rules derived by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Basic Rules: 1. Identify the parent chain, longest carbon chain (backbone), in the molecule. a. If there is more then one carbon chain of equal length, then identify the chain that is more substituted. 2. Number the carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain, the parent chain, from the end that gives the substituents as low a number as possible. 3. Name all the substituents, groups, that are attached to the parent chain. a. The substituents are named by their respective prefix from the table above and end with - yl . i. Example: CH 3- methyl, CH 3 CH 2-ethyl b. There are some common &quot;special&quot; names for branched alkane substituents which should be memorized. A few of them are: t-butyl isobutyl sec- butyl neopentyl Figure 1.0: Common &quot;Special&quot; Names for branched alkane substituents 1 4. Assign numbers to substituents to identify where the attachment of the substituent is to the parent chain....
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- Fall '08