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CH5 Zumdahl Gases 2008 for Web

CH5 Zumdahl Gases 2008 for Web - Chapter 5 Gases Properties...

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Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases Gas Laws (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) Gases in Chemical Reactions The Kinetic Model of Gases
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Gaseous elements
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Pressure = Force/Area
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A barometer
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Boyle’s Experiments Lower Higher Pressure Pressure
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V ~ 1/P If a fixed amount of gas is released into a larger container, how much force does it exert? As the pressure increases, the volume decreases.
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P ~ 1/V Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 If the volume of a gas is constrained to a smaller container, how much force does it exert? As the pressure increases, the volume decreases.
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Decrease volume more collisions V 1 V 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Relationship between volume and pressure.
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Ex. 1 A sample of gas occupies 21 liters at a pressure of 2.2 atm. What would be the volume if the pressure was increased to 6.2 atm? Ex. 2 A sample of O 2 occupies 10.0 L at 785 torr. At what pressure would it occupy 14.5 L?
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Charle’s Law: If the temperature of gas is increased, how will its volume respond (if the pressure is kept constant)?
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The point where a gas would have zero volume!
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P ~ T If a gas is heated, how much force does it exert (if the volume is kept constant)?
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Combined Gas Law (Boyle and Charle’s) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2
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Re-cap of Gases: Boyle’s Law: Charles’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 V 1 /T 1 = V 2 / T 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 1) Gas equations should make sense: V, P, T 2) Watch your units! (K, L, atm)
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One standardized set of conditions = STP = 0 o C (273 K) and 1.00 atm (760. Torr)
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