CH13 Powerpoint - CHAPTER 13-I Chemical Bonding Lewis Dot...

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CHAPTER 13-I Chemical Bonding Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Formation of Ionic Compounds Formation of Covalent Bonds Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule Resonance Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Dipole Moments The Continuous Range of Bonding Types
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Two types of bonds: o Ionic bonding results from electrostatic attractions among ions, which are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. o Covalent bonding results from sharing one or more electron pairs between two atoms. o ( Metallic bonding in Chapter 16!)
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Sharing of electrons Atoms with similar electronegativities Atoms achieve pseudo- noble configurations Octet rule to create Lewis dot structures Transfer of electrons Network of cations and anions Metals (left) with non- metals (right) Atoms achieve pseudo- noble configurations Strong interactions due to large electrostatic forces (+/-) Covalent Ionic
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Covalent: “Sharing” Ionic: “Transfer”
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Electronegativities
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Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms A s p p p A
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H H 1s 1 . H .
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Lewis Dot Formulas Li Be B C N O F Ne .. .. .. .. .. He H . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
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Elements that are in the same periodic group have the same Lewis dot structures. Li & Na . . N & P .. .. . . . . . . F & Cl .. . .. . . . . .. .. .
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Ionic Bonding Formation of Ionic Compounds An ion is an atom or a group of atoms possessing a net electrical charge. Ions come in two basic types: 1. positive (+) ions or cations 2. negative (-) ions or anions Metals react with non-metals Cations bind to anions
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Ionic compounds form extended three dimensional arrays of oppositely charged ions. Ionic compounds have high melting points because the coulomb force , which holds ionic compounds together, is strong. Remember: formula units, not molecules!
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Reaction of Group IA Metals with Group VIIA Nonmetals (s) 2(g) (s) o IA metal VIIA nometal 2 Na Cl 2 NaCl solid gas with an 842 C melting point + Why not write it as: Na + Cl NaCl
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Formation of Ionic Compounds: electron configurations electron configurations of Na and Cl. 2s 3s 3p Na ↑↓ Cl ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ These atoms form ions with these configurations : Na + ↑↓ same configuration as [Ne] Cl - ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓↑↓↑↓ same configuration as [Ar]
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What are the energetics of ionic bond formation? Na(g) Na + (g) + e - +494 kJ/mol Cl(g) + e - Cl - (g) -349 kJ/mol Na + (g) + Cl - (g) NaCl(s) -787 kJ/mol (Coulombic attraction) ______________________________ Net: Na(g) + Cl(g) NaCl(s) -642 kJ/mol
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Formation of Ionic Compounds Coulomb’s Law describes the attraction of positive ions for negative ions due to the opposite charges. ( 29 ( 29 ions of center between distance d ions on charge of magnitude q ions between attraction of force F where d q q F 2 = = = - +
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Small ions with high ionic charges have large Coulombic forces of attraction.
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