CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web-1

CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web-1 - Chapter...

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Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces Impact of Intermolecular Forces  on Chemical Properties Liquids Solids
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The three states Solid Liquid Gas
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Densities of the three states of water
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Forces Intramolecular Covalent bonds: 400 kJ/mole Ionic bonds: 250 kJ/mole Intermolecular Ion-dipole: 15 kJ/mole Dipole-dipole: 2 kJ/mole Hydrogen bonding: 10 kJ/mole Dipole-induced dipole: 1 kJ/mole London dispersion: 2 kJ/mole Big impact on chemical properties: melting points, boiling points, viscosity, etc.
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Intermolecular forces Survey of intermolecular forces ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, others… Mainly defined by two properties of molecules: dipole moment and polarizability big influence on the existence of three states of matter: gas liquid solid impact on chemical properties (boiling point, melting point, viscosity, etc.)
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Intermolecular forces : The forces that exist between molecules (liquids, solids); their strengths depend on the nature of the individual molecules and the distances between the molecules Ion-ion (very strong) Ion-dipole (quite strong) Dipole-Dipole (moderately strong) Dipole-Induced Dipole (weakest) London dispersion (weak to strong) Impact on properties : boiling point, melting point, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure
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Potential Energy of interactions as a function of distance between the atoms Recall: E p = q 1 q 2 4 πε o r (potential energy of two ions) Ions Rotating dipoles Fixed dipoles Ions and dipoles
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Dipole moment u = 1.85 D Polarizability = 1.48 x 10 α -24 cm 3 δ - δ +
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Interaction between two ions: Recall: E p = q 1 q 2 4 π ε o r (Coulomb potential energy of two ions) 150 – 400 kJ/mol Na + Cl - r
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Ion-Dipole Interactions: Between polar molecules and ions Hydration of Na + Hydration of Cl -
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This note was uploaded on 07/27/2009 for the course CH 89959 taught by Professor Cowley during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web-1 - Chapter...

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