CH14 II Zumdahl - Chapter 14-II Section 14-I: Valence Bond...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14-II Section 14-I: Valence Bond Theory/Localized electron model useful for rationalizing bonding in polyatomic molecules based on hybridization simple but inaccurate/deficient Section 14-II: Molecular Orbital Theory more complex/more accurate all valence electrons (from central atom and bonded atoms) are delocalized Are surrounding atoms hybridized or not? Each Cl is sp 3 hybridized: Each F uses a p orbital to form bonds: More uniform, more symmetrical Simpler, just focus on the central atoms PCl 5 PF 5 Chapter 14 Part II: Molecular Orbitals 1. Molecular Orbitals 2. Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams 3. Bond Order and Bond Stability 4. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 5. Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 6. Delocalization and the Shapes of Molecular Orbitals Molecular Orbital Theory Combinations of atomic orbitals on different atoms form molecular orbitals (MOs). Electrons in MOs belong to the molecule as a whole . Treat orbitals as wavefunctions and electrons as waves of energy. Molecular Orbitals There are two simple types of molecular orbitals that can be produced by the overlap of atomic orbitals. 1. Head-on overlap of atomic orbitals produces (sigma) orbitals. 2. Side-on overlap of atomic orbitals produces (pi) orbitals. Two 1s atomic orbitals that overlap produce two molecular orbitals designated as: 1. 1s or bonding molecular orbital 2. 1s * or antibonding molecular orbital. Graphically these two orbitals look like this: Overlap of Wavefunctions Constructive Overlap of two 1s orbitals Destructive Overlap of two 1s orbitals Bonding orbital Anti-bonding orbital Lower energy Higher energy Stable Unstable Favorable for electrons Unfavorable for electrons Electrons exist between nuclei Electrons exist outside Energetically, the molecular orbitals split. 1. The 1s lies lower in energy. 2. The 1s * is higher in energy....
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This note was uploaded on 07/27/2009 for the course CH 89959 taught by Professor Cowley during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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CH14 II Zumdahl - Chapter 14-II Section 14-I: Valence Bond...

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