homework - PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Solution terms Solution-...

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PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Solution terms Solution - a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Does not have to involve liquids -- air is a solution of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide etc.; solder is a solution of lead, tin etc. solute --component in lesser concentration; dissolvee solvent --component in greater concentration; dissolver solubility --maximum amount of material that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temp. to produce a stable solution. Study solubility rules!! Saturated solution - a solution containing the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve under a given set of conditions. Saturated solutions are at dynamic equilibrium with any excess undissolved solute present. Solute particles dissolve and recrystallize at equal rates. This point is the same as solubility for that substance. Unsaturated solution - a solution containing less than the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve under a given set of conditions. (more solute can dissolve) Supersaturated solution - a solution that has been prepared at an elevated temperature and then slowly cooled. It contains more than the usual maximum amount of solution dissolved. A supersaturated solution is very unstable and the addition of a “seed crystal’ will cause all excess solute to crystallize out of solution leaving the remaining solvent saturated. (rock candy is made this way) miscible —When two or more liquids mix (ex. Water and food coloring) immiscible —When two or more liquids DON’T mix.--they usually layer if allowed to set for a while. (ex. Water and oil) 1 Copyright © 2003 byAP Strategies TM , Inc. All Rights Reserved 7/27/2009 Solutions
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Units of solution concentration Molarity (M) = # of moles of solute per liter of solution IS temperature dependent. The liquid solvent can expand and contract with changes in temperature. Thus, not a constant ratio of solute:solvent particles. Most M solutions are made at 25 ° C so this point is subtle and picky!! solution of liters solute of moles M = Mass percent (weight percent) = percent by mass of the solute in the solution 100 x solution of grams solute of grams percent Mass = Mole fraction ( χ ) = ratio of the number of moles of a given component to the total number of moles of solution. Mole fraction a = χ a + + = b a a n n n Molality (m) = # of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent NOT temperature dependent. Represents a ratio of solute:solvent molecules at all times. solvent of kilograms solute of moles m = Normality ( N) = number of equivalents per liter of solution solution of liters s equivalent N = Equivalent ( for an acid-base reaction ) - the mass of acid or base that can furnish or accept exactly one mole of protons (H + ) M (# H + or OH - ) = N 2 Copyright © 2003 byAP Strategies TM , Inc. All Rights Reserved 7/27/2009 Solutions
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Equivalent ( for a redox reaction ) -the mass of oxidizing or reducing agent
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homework - PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Solution terms Solution-...

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