Chapt01

Accounting

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C H A P T E R 1 Chemistry: The Study of Change I N T R O D U C T I O N C HEMISTRY IS AN ACTIVE , EVOLVING SCIENCE THAT HAS VITAL IMPOR - TANCE TO OUR WORLD , IN BOTH THE REALM OF NATURE AND THE REALM OF SOCIETY . I TS ROOTS ARE ANCIENT , BUT AS WE WILL SOON SEE , CHEM - ISTRY IS EVERY BIT A MODERN SCIENCE . W E WILL BEGIN OUR STUDY OF CHEMISTRY AT THE MACROSCOPIC LEVEL , WHERE WE CAN SEE AND MEASURE THE MATERIALS OF WHICH OUR WORLD IS MADE . I N THIS CHAPTER WE WILL DISCUSS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD , WHICH PROVIDES THE FRAMEWORK FOR RESEARCH NOT ONLY IN CHEMISTRY BUT IN ALL OTHER SCIENCES AS WELL . N EXT WE WILL DIS - COVER HOW SCIENTISTS DEFINE AND CHARACTERIZE MATTER . T HEN WE WILL FAMILIARIZE OURSELVES WITH THE SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT USED IN THE LABORATORY . F INALLY , WE WILL SPEND SOME TIME LEARNING HOW TO HANDLE NUMERICAL RESULTS OF CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS AND HOW TO SOLVE NUMERICAL PROBLEMS . I N C HAPTER 2 WE WILL BEGIN TO EXPLORE THE MICROSCOPIC WORLD OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES . 1.1 CHEMISTRY: A SCIENCE FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 1.2 THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY 1.3 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1.4 CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER 1.5 THE THREE STATES OF MATTER 1.6 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 1.7 MEASUREMENT 1.8 HANDLING NUMBERS 1.9 THE FACTOR-LABEL METHOD OF SOLVING PROBLEMS 3 Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website
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Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry is often called the central science, because a basic knowledge of chemistry is essential for students of biology, physics, geology, ecology, and many other subjects. Indeed, it is central to our way of life; without it, we would be living shorter lives in what we would con- sider primitive conditions, without automobiles, electricity, computers, CDs, and many other everyday conveniences. Although chemistry is an ancient science, its modern foundation was laid in the nineteenth century, when intellectual and technological advances enabled scientists to break down substances into ever smaller components and consequently to explain many of their physical and chemical characteristics. The rapid development of increasingly sophisticated technology throughout the twentieth century has given us even greater means to study things that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Using computers and electron microscopes, for example, chemist can analyze the structure of atoms and mol- ecules—the fundamental units on which the study of chemistry is based—and design new substances with specific properties, such as drugs and environmentally friendly consumer products. As we prepare to leave the twentieth century, it is fitting to ask what part the cen- tral science will have in the next century. Almost certainly, chemistry will continue to play a pivotal role in all areas of science and technology. Before plunging into the study of matter and its transformation, let us consider some of the frontiers that chemists are currently exploring (Figure 1.1). Whatever your reasons for taking introductory
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