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Chapt24

Accounting

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Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website
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C H A P T E R 24 Organic Chemistry I N T R O D U C T I O N O RGANIC CHEMISTRY IS THE STUDY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS , EXCLUD - ING CO, CO 2 , CS 2 , AND VARIOUS BICARBONATES , CARBONATES , AND CYANIDES , WHICH ARE TRADITIONALLY CONSIDERED TO BE INORGANIC COMPOUNDS . T HE WORD ORGANIC WAS ORIGINALLY USED BY EIGH - TEENTH - CENTURY CHEMISTS TO DESCRIBE SUBSTANCES OBTAINED FROM LIVING SOURCES PLANTS AND ANIMALS . T HESE CHEMISTS BELIEVED THAT NATURE POSSESSED A CERTAIN VITAL FORCE AND THAT ONLY LIVING THINGS COULD PRODUCE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS . T HIS ROMANTIC NO - TION WAS DISPROVED IN 1828 BY F RIEDRICH W OHLER , A G ERMAN CHEMIST WHO PREPARED UREA , AN ORGANIC COMPOUND , FROM THE RE - ACTION BETWEEN THE INORGANIC COMPOUNDS LEAD CYANATE AND AQUEOUS AMMONIA : Pb(OCN) 2 2NH 3 2H 2 O 88n 2(NH 2 ) 2 CO Pb(OH) 2 UREA T ODAY , WELL OVER 13 MILLION SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL ORGANIC COM - POUNDS ARE KNOWN . T HIS NUMBER IS SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER THAN THE 100,000 OR SO KNOWN INORGANIC COMPOUNDS . 24.1 CLASSES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 24.2 ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 24.3 AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 24.4 CHEMISTRY OF THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS 939 Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website
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Recall that the linking of like atoms is called catenation. The ability of carbon to catenate is discussed in Section 21.3. For a given number of carbon atoms, the saturated hydrocarbon contains the largest number of hydrogen atoms. FIGURE 24.1 Classification of hydrocarbons. Carbon can form more compounds than any other element because carbon atoms are able not only to form single, double, and triple carbon-carbon bonds, but also to link up with each other in chains and ring structures. The branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds is organic chemistry. Classes of organic compounds can be distinguished according to functional groups they contain. A functional group is a group of atoms that is largely responsible for the chemical behavior of the parent molecule. Different molecules containing the same kind of functional group or groups undergo similar reactions. Thus, by learning the characteristic properties of a few functional groups, we can study and understand the properties of many organic compounds. In the second half of this chapter we will dis- cuss the functional groups known as alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, and amines. All organic compounds are derived from a group of compounds known as hy- drocarbons because they are made up of only hydrogen and carbon. On the basis of structure, hydrocarbons are divided into two main classes—aliphatic and aromatic. Aliphatic hydrocarbons do not contain the benzene group, or the benzene ring, whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings.
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