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PH1004_Experiment_1

PH1004_Experiment_1 - PH1004 laboratory Instructions Exp 1...

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PH1004 laboratory Instructions Exp 1: One Dimensional Motion 1 PH 1004 Laboratory Instructions Experiment 1 One Dimensional Motion Background The displacement of an object is defined as change in its position. In this experiment you will investigate objects traveling along a straight line, that is, you will deal with one-dimensional motion. We will assume therefore that an object is constrained to move along the x-axis. To determine the displacement along the x-axis, one needs to subtract the object’s initial position x i from its final position x f . That is, i f fi x x x = , (1-1) where x fi is the displacement of the object. The unit of displacement is meter [m] in the SI system. The average velocity is defined as the total displacement divided by the time elapsed during the displacement. If the object is at position x i at time instant t i , and at position x f at time instant t f , its average velocity in the x-direction is defined as , i f i f fi fi av t t x x t x v = = (1-2) where t fi = t f t i is the elapsed time. The unit of velocity is meter per second [m/s] or [ms -1 ] in SI system. The instantaneous velocity is defined as: dt dx t x v fi fi t fi = = 0 lim . (1-3) This is the derivative of position of the object with respect to time. Since it is not possible to measure infinitesimally small quantities, we approximate the value of v by dividing a sufficiently small distance interval x fi by the corresponding time interval t fi . That is,

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PH1004 laboratory Instructions Exp 1: One Dimensional Motion 2 fi fi t x v , (1-4) where t fi is made as small as possible in the experiment. In similar fashion, the average acceleration is equal to the difference in instantaneous velocity divided by the difference in time: i f i f av t t v v a = (1-5) The instantaneous acceleration in the x-direction is defined as the limit of average acceleration defined by formula (1-5) as t fi approaches zero, which is the derivative of the instantaneous velocity with respect to the time. That is, dt dv a = . (1-6) The unit of acceleration is [m/s 2 ] or [ms -2 ] in the SI system. Apparatus Air Track In this experiment you will use an air track to investigate one-dimensional motion along a straight line. To proceed with the experiment, it is important to understand how the air track works. A photograph of the air track apparatus which is used in experiments #1, 2 and 3 of this course is presented in Figure 1-1. The air supply pressurizes the air inside the air track. Tiny holes on the air track surface allow thin streams of air to emerge. These thin streams push symmetrically on both fins of the glider, creating a thin air gap between the glider and the air track surface, as shown in Figure 1-2. Before any experiments can be run on the air track, it must be carefully leveled. A tilted track will cause the glider to slide in one direction or the other.
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PH1004_Experiment_1 - PH1004 laboratory Instructions Exp 1...

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