EKG Final Review - Myocardium vs pericardium \u25cf Myocardium middle layer of heart wall consisting of cardiac muscle fibers that enable contractions of

EKG Final Review - Myocardium vs pericardium u25cf...

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Myocardium vs pericardium? Myocardium - middle layer of heart wall consisting of cardiac muscle fibers that enable contractions of the heart Pericardium - Outer membrane that encloses the heart consisting of an external fibrous layer and an inner double layer of serous membrane Depolarization vs repolarization (what each is?) Depolarization - Contraction Repolarization - relaxation Electrical activity of the heart, What cells are activated? Pacemaker cells Electrical activity of the heart is influenced by what? Electrolytes? What is the primary pacemaker, gatekeeper? Primary - SA node Gatekeeper - AV node What is hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia? (definition) If one increases or decreases what could it cause (signs/symptoms and how it changes ekg) Hypokalemia: Flat T waves/Depressed P waves/U-waves Signs: Supraventricular arrhythmias, muscle weakness, Cardiac arrest Hyperkalemia: Tall peaked T-waves/Wide QRS/Prolonged PR int./Flat P wave Signs: Ventricular arrhythmias, Cardiac Arrest Hyponatremia: No EKG changes Causes: Tachycardia, Orthostatic Hypertension, weakness Hypernatremia: No EKG changes Tremors, irritability, coma, seizures, What can cause hyponatremia and what could hyponatremia cause as it relates to the heart? Caused by: Excessive fluid intake Sodium depletion without replacement Diuretic therapy Heart arrhythmias?? Intrinsic rate for SA node and AV node/purkinje fibers, bundle of hiss. SA Node: 60-100 bpm AV node: 40-60 bpm Bundle of His: 40-60 bpm Purkinje System: 20-40 bpm
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Most common lead placement? III Lead placement, view II Why would you look at view 1 and 3? To locate a specific area/problem of the heart What does the P wave and QRS complex represent?
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