Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies University of Edinburgh Modern Middle East History: Emergence and Encounters Chronology Ottoman Empire/Turkey 1789-1807 Reign of Selim III 1808-39 Reign of Mahmud II 1826 Destruction of Janisseries 1838 Treaty of Balta Limanı (Anglo-Ottoman trade agreement) opens up Ottoman market to British trade and abolishes state monopolies 1839 (June) Death of Mahmud II (Nov) Reform edict of Gülhane (Gülhane Hatt-I Şerifi) issued by Sultan Abdϋlmecit (1839-61). 1839-1871 Period of the Tanzimat 1845 Conscription introduced 1854-56 Crimean War 1856 Hatt-i Hümayun decree 1869 Ottoman Nationality Law 1860s Young Ottomans active 1875 Ottoman Empire defaults on its debt 1876-78 1 st Constitutional period 1877 (March) Ottoman parliament opens 1878 (Feb) Abdülhamit II seizes power (July) Treaty of Berlin 1881 Public Debt Administration set up 1890s Young Turks become active 1908 (July) Young Turk Revolution: constitutional rule reintroduced.
1909 (April) Counterrevolution in Istanbul; Abdulhamit deposed (Aug) Constitutional parliamentary regime restored. 1913 (Jan) Bab-ı Ali coup led by CUP inner circle (June) Triumvirate of Enver, Talat and Cemal take power 1914 (Aug) Ottomans enter into secret alliance with Germany 1918 (Oct) Ottomans sign armistice of Mudros with Allies 1920 (Aug) Treaty of Sevres 1922 (Nov) Abolition of the sultanate 1923 (July) Treaty of Lausanne (Oct) Turkish Republic proclaimed; Mustafa Kemal elected president 1924 (March) Abolition of the caliphate 1925 (Nov) Hat Law passed 1928 (Nov) Latin alphabet adopted 1938 (July) Turkish troops occupy Alexandretta (Nov) Death of Atatürk Egypt 1517 Ottoman conquest of Egypt 1798-1801 The French Expedition 1805 Muhammad Ali gains recognition as governor ( wali ) from Istanbul 1811 Massacre of Mamluks by Muhammad Ali in Citadel 1811-29 Military campaigns in Arabia, Sudan, Greece 1831-40 Syrian occupation 1841 Treaty of London: Muhammad ‘Ali forced to withdraw from
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- Fall '19
- Ottoman Empire, Reza Khan, Muhammad Ali Shah