Modern Middle Eastern HistoryTurkey after Ataturk- 12/01/2016President Kemal AtaturkBreak with Ottoman Empire; capital changed and a new constitution was passed which affirmed its sovereignty. Throughout his presidency Inonu served as PM. 6 principles of Kemalism: ReformismRepublicanismSecularism eg. Religious schools closed, 1926 shari’ah abolished and replaced with the Swiss civil code, made a criminal offence to wear a fez 1925Nationalism. Attempted to create pride in identity; language reform replaced Turkish alphabet with LatinPopulism; educational expansion; 1923-40 the no. of schools doubledEtatism; state capitalism. Gov decided to intervene in the economy. Announcement of a 5 year plan in 1933; large scale textile and steel plants constructed; neglect of agriculture in this periodKemal saw the future of Turkey as following in the foot steps of Europe; wanted to reduce the influence of Islamic organisations on social and political life, separating it from the state as opposed to abolishing it.Kemalism was driven by the vision of the state running things.Died 1938.Succeeded by Ismet Inonu.Took the country into ww2. Kept Turkey neutral until it was clear who was going to will; feb 1945 Turkey declared war on Germany. 1945 USSR demanded a greater share in governing the Turkish Straits and put forward claims to Turkish territory. President Inonus gov, encouraged by UK and US, rejected the Soviet demands and asserted its sovereignty. Inonu followed the lines of economic development laid down by Ataturk; government took a major role in sponsoring economic development. By the late 1940s the business sector waned more freedom for private entrepreneurial activity, and the Turkish peasantry (made up most of the pop) was unhappywith the focus on industry at the expense of agriculture. Four members of the national assembly took advantage of this unrest and formed the Democratic Party developed. Was critical of RPP’s economic policy; now an opposition party present; although its program didn’t differ significantly from the RRPs. DP pledged to reduce the interventionist practices of the Kemalist state.1946 elections held and Republicans People’s Party returned to office. Democratic Party came to powerin 1950 and stayed until 1960. Democrats won 408 seats in the national assembly/ Republicans 48; end of 20 years of Republican rule. Transition to multiparty democracy.
Adnan Menderes PM 1950-1960.Bayar president. National assembly dominated by professionals and business people as opposed to military officers, and neither the PM or president had a military background. One of the DPs first acts was to legalise the call to prayer in Arabic. Construction of 5000 new mosques. DP modified the secularist policy of Ataturk. Arabic call to prayer allowed, expansion of religious teaching in schools, repair and construction of mosques, more public religious ritual (Ramadam, Hajj)Economic policy- Reduced the role of the state, agricultural reforms (Allowed for the prosperity of the business class), building dams, canals, highways. Allowed for more scope for private enterprise
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Arab League, Arab World, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism