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unit14 basics of the internet

unit14 basics of the internet - Lets get started History of...

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1 1 Getting Started Basics of the Internet 2 Internet Communication Connection Methods HTTP Let‟s get started … History of the Internet How Does it Work? Components Worldcom US Backbone Clients and Servers Protocols Types of protocols Server Responses Traveling Web Pages – URL‟s Domain Name Servers Fetching a Web Page IP‟s and Domains MIME Types 3 History of the Internet 1957: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Main idea: galactic network of computers 1969: ARPAnet launched (the first internet) Contained four nodes: UCLA (the first node), SRI, Utah, UCSB (fig 1.1-1.2) By the early 1970‟s ARPAnet had expanded; connecting major university research facilities to government institutions (i.e. military bases etc.) (fig 1.3) 4 Figure 1.1 the first node at UCLA (www.computerhistory.org) Figure 1.2 the first internet 4 nodes (www.computerhistory.org)
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2 5 Figure 1.3: ARPAnet 1973 (www.computerhistory.org) 6 History of the Internet Meanwhile other networks such as the NSF (National Science Foundation) expanded as well By the 1980‟s, a standard communication system (protocol) was developed to unite all network communications The term “internet” was used to describe this in 1982 The government decides to develop a “public” network while still keeping small private network In the late 1980‟s, a “backbone structure” was developed from the NSFnet to allow individual regions to manage their own networks (fig 1.4) 7 Figure 1.4: NSFnet Backbone (www.computerhistory.org) 8 Figure 1.5: Internet 1987 (www.computerhistory.org)
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3 9 History of the Internet First “worm” in 1988 takes out 6000 out of 60000 hosts Gopher --> hypertext --> the first browser Mosaic by the NCSA in 1993 1993: NSF lifts commercial restrictions The internet is now a commercial entity where billions of dollars of transactions are performed 10 History of the Internet 11 How Does it Work? The internet is a large collection of computers which are connected to at least one other computer Computers communicate with each other through other computers called nodes A node is a component in the internet 12 What are the components? Computer-computer link Modem Telephone Cable Wireless-fidelity (802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n), ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 1.544 Megabits per second download 128 kilobits per second upload Network cable (ethernet cable) Direct, via a hub Oh, and what is a computer anyway? - Components How Does it Work?
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