unit14 basics of the internet

unit14 basics of the internet - Lets get started . History...

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1 1 Getting Started Basics of the Internet 2 Internet Communication Connection Methods HTTP Let‟s get started … History of the Internet How Does it Work? – Components – Worldcom US Backbone – Clients and Servers Protocols – Types of protocols – Server Responses Traveling Web Pages – URL‟s – Domain Name Servers – Fetching a Web Page IP‟s and Domains MIME Types 3 History of the Internet • 1957: Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) • Main idea: galactic network of computers • 1969: ARPAnet launched (the first internet) • Contained four nodes: UCLA (the first node), SRI, Utah, UCSB (fig 1.1-1.2) • By the early 1970‟s ARPAnet had expanded; connecting major university research facilities to government institutions (i.e. military bases etc.) (fig 1.3) 4 Figure 1.1 – the first node at UCLA (www.computerhistory.org) Figure 1.2 – the first internet 4 nodes (www.computerhistory.org)
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2 5 Figure 1.3: ARPAnet 1973 (www.computerhistory.org) 6 History of the Internet • Meanwhile other networks such as the NSF (National Science Foundation) expanded as well • By the 1980‟s, a standard communication system (protocol) was developed to unite all network communications • The term “internet” was used to describe this in 1982 • The government decides to develop a “public” network while still keeping small private network • In the late 1980‟s, a “backbone structure” was developed from the NSFnet to allow individual regions to manage their own networks (fig 1.4) 7 Figure 1.4: NSFnet Backbone (www.computerhistory.org) 8 Figure 1.5: Internet 1987 (www.computerhistory.org)
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3 9 History of the Internet • First “worm” in 1988 takes out 6000 out of 60000 hosts • Gopher --> hypertext --> the first browser Mosaic by the NCSA in 1993 • 1993: NSF lifts commercial restrictions • The internet is now a commercial entity where billions of dollars of transactions are performed 10 History of the Internet 11 How Does it Work? • The internet is a large collection of computers which are connected to at least one other computer • Computers communicate with each other through other computers called nodes – A node is a component in the internet 12 • What are the components? • Computer-computer link – Modem • Telephone • Cable • Wireless-fidelity (802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n), • ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – 1.544 Megabits per second download – 128 kilobits per second upload • Network cable (ethernet cable) – Direct, via a hub • Oh, and what is a computer anyway? - Components How Does it Work?
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4 13 • Computer has … – Central Processing Unit – Primary Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) – Storage - Secondary • Hard Disks, Floppy Disks, Memory Cards, CD-ROMs A:, B:, C:, D:, … on a Windows PC – Computers run programs (software) • But what is a program, anyway? How Does it Work?
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This note was uploaded on 07/30/2009 for the course CMPT 165 taught by Professor Ramesh during the Summer '09 term at Simon Fraser.

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unit14 basics of the internet - Lets get started . History...

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