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RHCh6 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed Chapter 6 States...

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 6 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers
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States of Consciousness Waking Consciousness Selective Attention Levels of Information Processing
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States of Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Sleep? Sleep Disorders Dreams
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States of Consciousness Hypnosis Facts and Falsehoods Explaining the Hypnotized State Drugs and Consciousness Dependence and Addiction Psychoactive Drugs Influences on Drug Use
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History of Consciousness 1. Psychology began as a science of  consciousness. 1. Behaviorists argued about alienating  consciousness from psychology. 1. However, after 1960, mental concepts  (consciousness) started reentering  psychology.
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Consciousness, modern psychologists believe, is an awareness of  ourselves and our environment. Forms of Consciousness Bill Ling/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images Christine Brune Stuart Franklin/ Magnum Photos AP Photo/ Ricardo Mazalan
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Selective Attention Our conscious awareness processes only a small  part of all that we experience. We intuitively  make use of the information we are not  consciously aware of. 
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Inattentional Blindness Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an  object or a person in our midst. Simons & Chabris  (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see  the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game.  Daniel Simons, University of Illinois
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Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which  two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a  change in the individual asking for directions.  © 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons.
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Can we study consciousness? The “hard problem” ---how to relate the  subjective, phenomenological states of  consciousness (called “qualia”) to neural  activity. Definitions of consciousness  (Gazzaniga &  Heatherton (2003): Subjectivity (“sentience”) Access to information (e.g., CS, UCS) Self-knowledge (“Johari window”) A unitary experience Intentionality 
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A difficult question
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Sleep & Dreams Sleep – the irresistible tempter to whom we  inevitably succumb. Mysteries about sleep and dreams have just started unraveling in sleep laboratories around the world.
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Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms  occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and  wakefulness. Termed our “biological clock,” it can be altered by artificial  light.
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