RHCh10 - Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Ed Chapter 10...

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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 10 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Aneeq Ahmad, Ph.D. Clemson University (Modified by Ray Hawkins, Ph.D.) Worth Publishers
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Motivation Motivational Concepts Instincts and Evolutionary  Psychology Drives and Incentives Optimum Arousal A Hierarchy of Motives
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Motivation Hunger The Physiology of Hunger The Psychology of Hunger Obesity and Weight Control
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Motivation Sexual Motivation The Physiology of Sex The Psychology of Sex Adolescent Sexuality Sexual Orientation Sex and Human Values
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Motivation The Need to Belong Achievement Motivation Identifying Achievement Motivation Sources of Achievement Motivation
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Motivation Motivation is a need or  desire that  energizes   behavior and  directs  it  towards a goal. Aron Ralston was  motivated to cut his arm  in order to free himself  from a rock that pinned  him down. Aron Ralston AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
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Perspectives on Motivation Four perspectives used to explain motivation include  the following:  1. Instinct Theory (replaced by  the evolutionary perspective) 2. Drive-Reduction Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Hierarchy of Motives Film
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Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed  patterns throughout different species and are not  learned (Tinbergen, 1951). Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.
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Imprinting (Tinbergen, 1951) 12.03
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Drives and Incentives When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was  replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A  physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a  drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
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Incentive Where our needs  push,   incentives  (positive or negative  stimuli)  pull  us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive. Film
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Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of  arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and  children are known to explore the environment in the  absence of a need-based drive. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
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Novelty and arousal
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A Hierarchy of Motives Abraham Maslow (1970)  suggested that certain needs  have priority over others.  Physiological needs like  breathing, thirst, and  hunger come before  psychological needs such as  achievement, self-esteem,  and the need for  recognition.
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