What is empiricism - 1. What is empiricism? Explain...

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1. What is empiricism? Explain thoroughly. a. Definition: The only source of real knowledge about the world is experience. (p. 8) b. “Empiricists do not deny that reasoning…is needed to make sense of what we observe. Still, they insist that the role of experience is somehow fundamental in understanding how we learn about the world. “ (page 10) c. Empiricists generally believe that science is just a particularly organized way of learning from experience. i. Darwin’s theory of evolution: made little or no use of mathematics, developed theory from observing nature. d. 17 th century empiricists (after Newton) were primarily sensationalists| i. sensationalists believe that our experience consists entirely of sensations 1. Looks like red patch to the left of green line 2. It is hot 3. “Sensations, like patches of color and sounds, appear in the mind and are all the mind has access to.” (page 19) e. Carl Hempel, one of the most important empiricist philosophers of the 20 th century used an example of Ignaz Semmelweiss. 1. Semmelweiss worked in a hospital in Vienna in the mid 19 th century. He showed that if doctors washed their hands before delivering a baby, the risk of infection in the mothers was greatly reduced. f. “to be an empiricist is to claim that knowledge comes from experience. To be a logical empiricist was to claim that there are certain logical connections between particular observation sentences and the (scientific) claims we make.” (notes, problems with logical empiricism). g. Logical Positivism is a form of empiricism i. Logical positivists believed that scientific knowledge is of the same sort as all knowledge, it is just particularly good and organized knowledge. ii. Logical positivists believed that some things cannot be learned from experience. iii. ##################################################### ##################################################### ##Talk about the analytic-synthetic distinction and talk about what
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the logical positivists dismissed as meaningless – ethics, theology, idealism, Hegel, Marxism, astrology, LOVE, FEELINGS, SPACE, ABSTRACT THINGS, iv. Verifiability theory of meaning 1. One of the main ideas of logical positivism 2. Theory only applies to sentences that are not analytic and involves the kind of meaning when someone is trying to say something about the world. 3.
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What is empiricism - 1. What is empiricism? Explain...

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