cDNA array analysis of stress-induced gene expression in barley androgenesis

CDNA array analysis of stress-induced gene expression in barley androgenesis

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cDNA array analysis of stress-induced gene expression in barley androgenesis Simone de F. Maraschin a, *, Martien Caspers b,c , Elena Potokina d , Florian Wu ¨ lfert c , Andreas Graner d , Herman P. Spaink e and Mei Wang b a De Ruiter Seeds, Leeuwenhoekweg 52, PO Box 1050, 2660 BB Bergschenhoek, the Netherlands b TNO Department of Applied Plant Sciences, Zernikedreef 9, PO Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, the Netherlands c TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Utrechtseweg 48, 3700 AJ, Zeist, the Netherlands d Institut fu ¨ r Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK), Correnstrasse 3, D-06466, Gatersleben, Germany e Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 64, PO Box 9505, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands Correspondence * Corresponding author, e-mail: simone.defariamaraschin@ Received 31 July 2005; revised 27 November 2005 doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00673.x Different aspects of androgenesis induction have been studied in detail, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with this devel- opmental switch. We have employed macroarrays containing 1421 expressed sequence tags covering the early stages of barley zygotic embry- ogenesis to compare the gene expression profiles of stress-induced andro- genic microspores with those of uninucleate microspores as they progressed into binucleate stage during pollen development. Principal component ana- lysis defined distinct sets of gene expression profiles that were associated with androgenesis induction and pollen development. During pollen devel- opment, uninucleate microspores were characterized by the expression of cell division-related genes and transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis. Progress into binucleate stage resulted in the significant increase in the level of transcripts associated with starch biosynthesis and energy produc- tion. These transcripts were downregulated in androgenic microspores. These results indicate that stress blocks the expression of pollen-related genes. The induction of androgenesis by stress was marked by the upregula- tion of transcripts involved in sugar and starch hydrolysis, proteolysis, stress response, inhibition of programmed cell death, and signaling. Further expres- sion analysis revealed that the induction of genes encoding alcohol dehy- drogenase 3, metalloprotease FtsH, cysteine protease 1 precursor, phytepsin precursor (aspartic protease), and a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit was associated with the androgenic potential of microspores, whereas the induc- tion of transcripts involved in signaling and cytoprotection was associated with stress responses. Taken together, these expression profiles represent ‘bio-markers’ associated with the androgenic switch in microspores, provid- ing a substantial contribution toward understanding the molecular events underlying stress-induced androgenesis.
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CDNA array analysis of stress-induced gene expression in barley androgenesis

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