A Rose by Any Other Name

A Rose by Any Other Name - The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 2315,...

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The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 2315, October 2002, www.plantcell.org © 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists IN THIS ISSUE A Rose by Any Other Name? “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other word would smell as sweet.” So declares Juliet as she laments the name of her beloved in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet . The fact is, today there are numerous varieties of ornamental rose that produce little or no fragrance. Garden roses of the 1500s (e.g., Damask, Alba, and Gallica varieties and Shakespeare’s eglantine, Rosa eglanteria ) were excep- tionally fragrant, but the flowers tended to be less showy and shorter lived than mod- ern roses. Conversely, many modern Hy- brid Tea or Floribunda varieties that bear large, showy flowers and have long vase lives lack a strong fragrance. In this issue of The Plant Cell , Guterman et al. (pages 2325–2338) report on the identification of genes associated with floral fragrance in Rosa hybrida via a genomic approach that encompasses cDNA sequencing, microar- ray gene expression analysis, chemical analysis of the volatile composition of rose petals, and biochemical analysis of candi- date proteins. Floral scents are complex mixtures of chemicals. Although there are several main groups of compounds (e.g., mono- terpenes and sesquiterpenes, aromatic al- cohols, and esters), floral scent is highly species specific, and almost no two spe- cies produce identical mixtures of scent compounds. Even within species, often there is a great deal of variability in scent production. Rose is a prime example: many cultivars produce little or no scent, and among those that do, there is consid- erable variability in the type of scent pro- duced. Guterman et al. analyzed two cultivars of R. hybrida , Fragrant Cloud (FC), which produces large, strongly scented red flow- ers, and Golden Gate (GG), which yields smaller yellow flowers that have almost no fragrance (Figure 1). Gas chromatogra- phy–mass spectrometry analyses of the flower headspace showed that FC flowers emit typical rose fragrance volatiles, in- cluding various esters, aromatic and ali- phatic alcohols, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. By contrast, 99% of the volatiles emitted by GG flowers were methoxylated phenols, which lack a dis- tinct fragrance. Volatile emission in both cultivars was low early in flower develop- ment and increased to a peak as the flow- ers reached full bloom (developmental stages 4 to 6). The group created cDNA li- braries using RNA isolated from stage-4 petals from each of the cultivars and se- quenced 1834 and 1039 clones from the FC and GG libraries, respectively. A large percentage of cDNAs representing unique genes were found only in the FC database (1288 genes) or only in the GG database (746 genes). This is probably attributable to the low redundancy of the library and the fact that the database is still far from saturation. A high percentage of unique genes showed homology with genes that encode proteins of unknown function
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This note was uploaded on 08/01/2009 for the course HORT hor-11-12 taught by Professor Park during the Spring '09 term at A.T. Still University.

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A Rose by Any Other Name - The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 2315,...

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