This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Review of Plant Biotechnology and Applied Genetics Genetic engineering in ﬂoriculture Yoshikazu Tanaka 1, * , Yukihisa Katsumoto 1 , Filippa Brugliera 2 & John Mason 2 1 Institute for Advanced Technology, Suntory Ltd., 1-1-1 Wakayamadai, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka, 618-8503, Japan; 2 Florigene Ltd., 16 Gipps Street, Collingwood, Victoria 3066, Australia (*requests for offprints: Fax: +81-75-962-8262; E-mail: [email protected]) Received 21 October 2003; accepted in revised form 10 June 2004 Key words: colour, disease, ethylene, ﬂower, gene, morphogenesis, scent Abstract The global ﬂower industry thrives on novelty. Genetic engineering is providing a valuable means of expanding the ﬂoriculture gene pool so promoting the generation of new commercial varieties. Commer- ation of genetically engineered ﬂowers is currently confined to novel coloured carnations. However, further products are expected given the level of activity in the field. In general terms engineered traits are valuable to either the consumer or the producer. At present only consumer traits appear able to provide a return capable of supporting what is still a relatively expensive molecular breeding tool. The biosynthesis of ﬂoral pigments, particularly anthocyanins, has been elucidated in great detail in model ﬂowers such as petunia. This knowledge is now being applied to an understanding of a wide range of other ﬂowers and providing a means of targeting colour modification in these species. The engineering of novel traits in a given variety also rests on capabilities in plant transformation that are continuing to expand at a rapid rate. The expression of genes transferred across genera is not always predictable and so requires considerable trial and error to arrive at stable phenotype of commercial interest. Manipulation of metabolic pathways, often requiring introduction of multiple genes can also be problematic. This is a reﬂection of the complexity of interactions within and between cells at a gene and gene product level. An understanding of gene function is only an essential first step in engineering novel traits. The production of novel ﬂower colour has been the first success story in ﬂoriculture genetic engineering. Other traits that have received attention include ﬂoral scent, ﬂoral and plant morphology, senescence of ﬂowers both on the plant and post-harvest and disease resistance. Abbreviations: ACC – 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; AS – aureusidin synthase; ANS – antho- cyanidin synthase; BAMT – S-adenosyl- L-methionine benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase; bHLH – basic helix-loop-helix; CaMV35S – cauliﬂower mosaic virus 35S; C2 ¢ GT – UDP-glucose: 2 ¢ ,4,4 ¢ ,6 ¢-tetra- hydroxychalcone 2 ¢- O-glucosyltransferase; CHI – chalcone isomerase; CHS – chalcone synthase; DFR – dihydroﬂavonol 4-reductase; F3H – ﬂavanone 3 b-hydroxylase; F3 ¢ H – ﬂavonoid 3 ¢-hydroxylase; F3 ¢ 5 ¢...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 08/01/2009 for the course HORT hor-11-12 taught by Professor Park during the Spring '09 term at A.T. Still University.
- Spring '09