Material from section 2.1

Material from section 2.1 - 03-1 Instruction Set(ISA Design...

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03-1 03-1 Instruction Set (ISA) Design and Addressing Modes Material from sections 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3. Outline ISA Design Choices It’s more than just picking instructions. ISA Design Choice Details Screw up, and you’ll be cursed for decades. 03-1 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-1
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03-2 03-2 ISA Design Decisions I. Organization A. Data types (supported by ISA). B. Memory and register organization. C. Addressing modes. II. Instruction Choices A. Data movement instructions. B. Arithmetic and logical instructions. C. Control transfer instructions (CTIs). (Branch, jump, call, return.) D. Process and processor management instructions. III.Instruction Coding 03-2 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-2
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03-3 03-3 ISA Design Choice Details Outline Data Types Memory and Register Organization ISA Classification Addressing Modes Displacement and Immediate Sizes 03-3 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-3
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03-4 03-4 Data Types To include a new data type: Define operations. Determine its sizes. Add new instructions to operate on it. 03-4 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-4
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03-5 03-5 Integer Data Types Needed For Address computation. Counting (loop iterations, etc). Arithmetic, of course. 03-5 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-5
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03-6 03-6 Data Types for Simple 32-bit Machine Type Special Instructions 32-bit signed integer 32-bit unsigned integer addu 16-bit signed integer lh , load half-word. 16-bit unsigned integer lhu , load half-word unsigned. 8-bit signed integer lb , load byte. 8-bit unsigned integer lbu , load unsigned byte. 32-bit float addf , add 32-bit floating-point. 64-bit float (double) addd , add 64-bit floating-point. Signed integer types operated on by integer arithmetic instructions. Unsigned integers operated on by logical and unsigned integer arithmetic instructions. The basic 32-bit load instruction not appropriate for smaller types. The lh , lhu , lb , and lbu instructions ... ... place data in low portion of 32-bit registers ... ... and place zeros or a sign bit high portion. 03-6 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-6
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03-7 03-7 Data Type Tradeoffs Is cost worth the benefit? Benefit is improved performance, but who benefits?: Everyone (performance better on whole SPEC suite) ... ... if not then some class of programs ( e.g. , floating point, graphics) ... ... if not then my demo program :-) . Chip area, a limited resource, ... ... might be given to data type (or other feature) with most benefit. 03-7 EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 12:17, 11 October 2006 from lsli03. 03-7
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03-8 03-8 Data Type Tradeoff Examples Start with integer-only ISA. Example of a good new data type: floating-point. FP hardware many times faster than software. Floating-point arithmetic used frequently in many programs.
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