Material from section 2.1

Material from section 2.1 - 03-1 03-1

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Unformatted text preview: 03-1 03-1 InstructionSet(ISA)DesignandAddressingModes Materialfromsections2.1,2.2,and2.3. Outline ISADesignChoices Itsmorethanjustpickinginstructions. ISADesignChoiceDetails Screwup,andyoullbecursedfordecades. 03-1 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-1 03-2 03-2 ISADesignDecisions I.Organization A.Datatypes(supportedbyISA). B.Memoryandregisterorganization. C.Addressingmodes. II.InstructionChoices A.Datamovementinstructions. B.Arithmeticandlogicalinstructions. C.Controltransferinstructions(CTIs).(Branch,jump,call,return.) D.Processandprocessormanagementinstructions. III.InstructionCoding 03-2 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-2 03-3 03-3 ISADesignChoiceDetails Outline DataTypes MemoryandRegisterOrganization ISAClassification AddressingModes DisplacementandImmediateSizes 03-3 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-3 03-4 03-4 DataTypes Toincludeanewdatatype: Defineoperations. Determineitssizes. Addnewinstructionstooperateonit. 03-4 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-4 03-5 03-5 IntegerDataTypes NeededFor Addresscomputation. Counting(loopiterations,etc). Arithmetic,ofcourse. 03-5 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-5 03-6 03-6 DataTypesforSimple32-bitMachine Type SpecialInstructions 32-bitsignedinteger 32-bitunsignedinteger addu 16-bitsignedinteger lh ,loadhalf-word. 16-bitunsignedinteger lhu ,loadhalf-wordunsigned. 8-bitsignedinteger lb ,loadbyte. 8-bitunsignedinteger lbu ,loadunsignedbyte. 32-bitfloat addf ,add32-bitfloating-point. 64-bitfloat(double) addd ,add64-bitfloating-point. Signedintegertypesoperatedonbyintegerarithmeticinstructions. Unsignedintegersoperatedonbylogicalandunsignedintegerarithmeticinstructions. Thebasic32-bitloadinstructionnotappropriateforsmallertypes. The lh , lhu , lb ,and lbu instructions ... ... placedatainlowportionof32-bitregisters ... ... andplacezerosorasignbithighportion. 03-6 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-6 03-7 03-7 DataTypeTradeoffs Iscostworththebenefit? Benefitisimprovedperformance,butwhobenefits?: Everyone(performancebetteronwholeSPECsuite) ... ... ifnotthensomeclassofprograms( e.g. ,floatingpoint,graphics) ... ... ifnotthenmydemoprogram :-) . Chiparea,alimitedresource, ... ... mightbegiventodatatype(orotherfeature)withmostbenefit. 03-7 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-7 03-8 03-8 DataTypeTradeoffExamples Startwithinteger-onlyISA. Exampleofagoodnewdatatype:floating-point. FPhardwaremanytimesfasterthansoftware. Floating-pointarithmeticusedfrequentlyinmanyprograms. 03-8 EE4720LectureTransparency.Formatted12:17,11October2006fromlsli03. 03-8 03-9 03-9 Exampleofabadnewdatatype:time. Detailoftimedatatype: Size64bits.(Thenumberofsecondssince1970UTC,avoidY2.038k[s4G?]problem.). SomeInstructions: t.add.day ( sumtime )( time )( days ) ... ... Alloperandsareregisters. ... ... Add...
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Material from section 2.1 - 03-1 03-1

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