Spring 09 lecture 08 and 09

Spring 09 lecture 08 and 09 - Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote...

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Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Remember Biol 130/139: Karyote, from Greek karyon = kernel (nucleus) Pro = before Prokaryote - before nucleus Eu = true Eukaryote - true nucleus
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Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes No membrane- bound nucleus Single, circular  chromosome Don’t have  membrane-  bound  organelles Single cell  organisms Eukaryotes All have a membrane-  bound nucleus Number of  chromosomes varies by  species Have membrane- bound  organelles (organelle  DNA) Can be single cell or  multi-celled organisms
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Chromosome numbers Each type of eukaryote has a species specific number of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Cell division and cell cycle
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The Cell Division Prokaryote and 1-cell eukaryote : cell division is necessary for reproduction What is the purpose of making more cells? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcjAsTTN8qU BINARY FISSION
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Eukaryote: Cells go through cell division for: Tissue Growth Larger bones, bigger muscles Repair of damaged tissues Broken bones, muscle tears, renewed skin cells, broken blood vessels Reproduction specialized cells - GERM CELLS -  go through  specialized cell division to produce sex cells - GAMETES  and also for MITOSIS MEIOSIS
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The cell division and the cell cycle Orderly set of events that take place between the formation of a new cell and the division of that “parent” cell into 2 new “daughter” cells is called cell cycle 2 Main Stages 1. Interphase: normal cell functions and preparation for mitosis 2. Mitosis and cytokinesis: nuclear division and final division/separation of the “parent” cell cytoplasm into two “daughter” cells
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The Cell Cycle Stage 1: Interphase Most of a cell’s life is spent in interphase. Normal cell functions are carried out in interphase (protein synthesis is constantly going on; proteins needed for…). Some cells never
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ccyc 2 Phases of cell cycle : G1: cell grows, carries out normal metabolism, organelles duplicate S: DNA replication, chromosome duplication (S stands for synthesis) G2: cell grows, prepares for mitosis M: mitosis: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase; cytokinesis at the end G0: cells that have stopped dividing (may be temporary, permanent) interphase (Lewin. 2004. Genes VIII, Fig. 29.1) (Lewin. 2004. Fig. 29.2)
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The Cell Cycle
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Remember DNA functions:   stores information, replicates faithfully, can mutate  (variability) Homologous chromosomes (one from mother and one from father Different alleles Would this be male or female organism? Why?
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Mitosis is nuclear division The nucleus and its contents are divided.
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Spring 09 lecture 08 and 09 - Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote...

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