Spring 09 lectures 01 and 02

Spring 09 lectures 01 and 02 - Three important questions...

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Three important questions will be addressed in next few lectures: 1. Why is it important to understand gene expression 1. How do we study gene expression and function/performance of certain proteins 1. What do we use (what enables us) to perform experiments and collect data
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Question #2: How do we approach studying gene expression and function/performance of certain proteins? 1. Biochemical approach – start from the protein (which is isolated by/through its function or activity) – go towards DNA 1. Genetic approach – start from the gene - DNA (normal vs. mutated) – go towards production of protein (normal vs. mutated) Links between (or tools for both) genetic and biochemical approaches: recombinant DNA technology bioinformatics
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Biochemical approaches: protein to gene Genetic approaches: gene to protein
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Biochemical approach Enables us to isolate/separate protein of interest based on its function/activity (example: RNAPs; keep it in mind as we will talk about it later in the course) The protein activity could be assayed under different conditions The ultimate goal is to deduce the sequence of the gene which codes for extracted protein
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Genetic approach: Through identification/isolation of MUTANTS Identification of mutants - genetic screens -essential genes and proteins – absolutely necessary for survival Conditional lethal mutations -permissive/nonpermissive conditions (e.g. temperature) -information?
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Example: isolating Temperature Sensitive Mutants in Yeast
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Genetic approach enables us to get the answers to following questions: 1. What is a potential function and “importance” of the protein? through identifi c ation / isolation / survival of MUTANTS 1. What is # of genes involved in certain process? 2. What is the order of these genes (proteins) in the process? by applying genetic approach called COMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS 3. What are the interactions between different genes (proteins)? by using genetic approach called GENETIC SUPPRESSION
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Recombinant DNA technology : combination of techniques Restriction enzymes: “cutting and pasting” DNA pieces Sequencing of DNA Nucleic acid hybridization DNA cloning DNA engineering Isolate, sequence and manipulate individual genes from any type of cell Enabled studies of structure and function of genes and the role of proteins in cell processes Biochemical and genetic approaches are connected through usage of
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Bioinformatics What is Bioinformatics? Computer science applied in answering biology questions Compilation of molecular data in databases Global access to large amounts of data 3 important sub-disciplines Algorithm development: finding procedures or formulas for solving different problems Analysis and interpretation Tool development Biochemical and genetic approaches are connected through
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