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Chemistry Book Notes

Chemistry Book Notes - Chemistry Text Notes Chapter 5...

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Chemistry Text Notes Chapter 5 Boyle’s Law: V = k/p o Inverse Relationship o Gas that obeys Boyle’s Law is called an ideal gas. Charles’s Law: V = bT o Direct Relationship Avogadro’s Law: V = an o Gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles. Obeyed closely by gases at low pressures. Ideal Gas Law is best applied to pressures below 1 atm. Gases behave ideally at low pressures and high temperature (realistic gases are at low temps and high pressures). STP = 0°C and 1 atm. Molar volume of an ideal gas is 22.4 L Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures – For a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone. Mole Fraction – The ratio of the number of moles og a given component in a mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture. χ = n1/nT Total number of moles of product that is important. Kinetic Molecular Theory o Particles are so small that the volume of individual particles can assumed to be negligible (zero) o Particles are in constant motion – these collisions of particles with walls of the container cause the pressure exerted by the gas.
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o Particles are assumed to exert no force on each other – neither attract/repel o Particles Avg. Kinetic Energy is assumed to be directly proportional to Kelvin temp. KEavg = 3/2 RT o Here PV/n = RT o Represents the average, random, translational energy for 1 mole of gas at a given temperature. Mean Free Path – The average distance a particle travels between collisions in a particular gas sample is called the mean free path. In root-mean squared velocity equation, M is in kg and R = 8.3125 J/(K*mol) Effusion – Term used to describe the passage of a gas through a tiny orifice into a na evacuated chamber. Van der Waals equations corrects for the volume of the particles and the attractive forces of the particles. “a” values tend to be lower for the noble gases (lowest is He, then Ne, then it increases rapidly down the group). “a” value is bigger for more complex molecules like CO2, CH4, NH3, and H2O is huge. H2 is small followed by N2, O2, then Cl2 (which is big). “b” increases with the size of the gas molecule. Chapter 6 Chemical Equilibrium - The state in which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant with time. Far to the right –Direction of products. Far to the left – Direction of reactants. Equilibrium is not static; it is a highly dynamic situation. Each set of equilibrium concentrations is called an equilibrium position. There is only one equilibrium constant (K) for a particular system at a particular temperature, but there are an infinite number of equilibrium positions.
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o The specific equilibrium position adopted by a system simply depends on whatever the initial concentrations are. But K does not.
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