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Parts+of+Chapter+17+chapter+18 - Parts of Chapter 17...

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Parts of Chapter 17- Origins and Evolution Chapter 18- Bacterial Diversity Phylogeny- study of evolutionary relationships of organisms Comparison of rRNA sequences can be used to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. SSU (small subunit) rRNA sequencing of 16S or 18S subunits is common The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) contains a large collection of rRNA sequences Phylogenetic trees have been prepared for all the major prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. Comparative ribosomal RNA sequencing has defined the 3 domains of life 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. eukarya Characteristics of the Domains of Life Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Cell wall Peptidoglycan Planctomyces-Pirella have protein cell wall, Mycoplasma-Chlamydia lack cell wall Pseudo- peptidoglycan, protein chitin cellulose protozoans lack a cell wall Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Lipids Ester-linked fatty acids; Membrane lipid bilayer Ether-linked fatty acids; membrane lipid monolayer Ester-linked fatty acids; membrane lipid bilayer Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya
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RNA polymerase 4 subunits 2 different ones with 8-10 subunits each 3 different ones with 10-12 subunits each Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Protein synthesis 70S Ribosomes; formyl-methionine 70S Ribosomes but functionally similar to eukaryotes; methionine 80S Ribosomes; methionine Taxonomic Heirarchy: Domain Phylum Class Order Family Genus – 16S ribosomal RNA sequence difference of less than 5% are same genus Species – 16S ribosomal RNA sequence difference of less than 3% are same species 7029 prokaryotes recognized; many more out there Nomenclature and Bergey's Manual Binomial system of nomenclature: descriptive genus name & species epithet Ex. Bacillus subtilis The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria regulates naming of prokaryotes. Formal recognition of a new prokaryotic species requires: Deposition of a sample of the organism in 2 international culture collections Official publication of the new species name and description in International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology ( IJSEM ). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
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Parts+of+Chapter+17+chapter+18 - Parts of Chapter 17...

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