Chapter+3+Cell+Structure+and+Function

Chapter+3+Cell+Structure+and+Function - Chapter 3 Cell...

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Chapter 3 Cell Structure and Function Basic cellular structures: 1. Cytoplasm 2. Cytoplasmic membrane 3. Nucleus or nucleoid 4. Ribosomes – (protein synthesis) 5. Cell wall - found in plants & most prokaryotes; not in animals Two types of cells: 1. Prokaryote simpler internal structure lack membrane – enclosed organelles Bacteria & Archaea 2. Eukaryote membrane enclosed organelles (nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria, etc) algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals Viruses Non-cellular Reproduce only inside a host cell Lack many characteristics of living things Ex. HIV virus, Rhinoviruses (colds) Arrangement of DNA in Microbial Cells genome - a cell's complete set of genes DNA is arranged to form chromosomes
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Prokaryotes - have a single circular chromosome & sometimes circular extrachromosomal DNA (plasmids) Eukaryotes - several linear chromosomes Nucleus - membrane-enclosed structure that contains the chromosomes – found in eukaryotes Nucleoid - mass of DNA not bound by a membrane – found in prokaryotes The Bacterial Cell Cytoplasm surrounded by envelope o Cytoplasm contains DNA in nucleoid Envelope has lipid membrane boundary o Plus structural cell wall Bacterial cell structures cytoplasmic membrane - “fluid” selective permeability barrier made of phospholipids & o CM is a phospholipid bilayer o Phospholipid- Hydrophilic (dissolve in water) group faces cytoplasm or periplasm Hydrophobic (don’t dissolve in water) fatty acids line up inside membrane o Attraction of nonpolar fatty acid portions of one phospholipid layer for other layer result in selective permeability of cell membrane. o Integral membrane proteins – span membrane o Peripheral membrane proteins- are bound to surface of membrane o Cytoplasmic Membrane: Functions 1. Permeability barrier:
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a. Prevents leakage of cytoplasmic metabolite into environment. b. Transport of substances (nutrients & waste products) into & out of cell Due to hydrophilic outside & hydrophobic center of membrane, only water can freely diffuse through membrane Other compounds must be transported- usually by integral & peripheral membrane proteins 2. Protein anchor- site of many proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics (production of ATP), and chemotaxis (movement of bacterial cells) 3. a. Respiration Eukaryotes have mitochondria to generate energy by respiration In prokaryotes, respiration occurs in the cytoplasmic membrane b. Photosynthesis Photosynthetic eukaryotes have chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis Photosynthetic prokaryotes carry out photosynthesis in the
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Chapter+3+Cell+Structure+and+Function - Chapter 3 Cell...

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