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chapter+4+outline - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture Growth and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development Microbial Nutrition • All life requires: • Electron flow, to drive all life processes • Drives ions into, out of cells • Used to create ATP • Energy, to move electrons • Materials, to make cell parts • Nutrients- CHONPS Electron flow requires: • Source of electrons • Lithotrophs • Inorganic molecules are electron donors (iron) Organotrophs • Organic molecules are electron donors (glucose) • Ultimate electron acceptor • Inorganic molecules (nitrate or oxygen) • Respiration • Organic molecules (pyruvate) • Fermentation • Source of energy • Phototrophs • Light energy excites electrons • Excited molecules are electron donors • Chemotrophs • Chemicals are electron donors • Oxidation of chemical o Oxidation = donation of electrons • Nutrients • Macronutrients • Major elements in cell macromolecules o C, H, O, N, P, S • Ions necessary for protein functions o Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + • Micronutrients • Trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, etc) & growth factors (organic compounds) necessary for enzyme function • Carbon- large amount needed by cells to form (amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, & nitrogenase bases) to carry out cellular functions. • Autotrophs- prokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from CO ₂ • Heterotrophs- must obtain carbon from organic compounds. (most prokaryotes) • Nitrogen- needed by cells for amino acids, nitrogen bases, & other cell constituents. • Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes- capable of using atmospheric nitrogen gas • Most prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia & nitrate • Energy sources: • Chemoorganotrophs-energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of organic compounds • Chemolithotrophs – energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. Only in prokaryotes. Advantage? (Doesn’t compete for nutrients because no one wants inorganic nutrients) • Phototrophs - contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy source. Advantage? (use light, which is unlimited source of energy) • Carbon sources: • Heterotroph - carbon source is organic carbon compounds • Autotrophs - carbon source is carbon dioxide These terms can be combined to more completely describe an organism....
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2009 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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chapter+4+outline - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture Growth and...

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