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chapters+13+14+15+outline+1 - sphate is cleaved osphate(G3P...

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sphate is cleaved osphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) d to TAGE e-3-phosphate: ons rons + are reduced, 2 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate are produced (1 st oxidation reduction) phorylated by substrate-level phosphorylation to form 2 ATP. tion – a high energy phosphate group is transferred to ADP to form ATP sphorylated by substrate-level phosphorylation to form 2 ATP and d. lines – catabolic pathways e d lines – anabolic pathways ounds written in lowercase – precursor metabolites Chapter 14 Sun is ultimate energy source Photosynthesis Captures light, stores as chemical energy Heterotrophy Uses captured chemical energy Builds other chemicals Waste Each step gives off heat energy Metabolism Catabolism Breaking down molecules for energy Anabolism Using energy to build cell components Metabolism Balance between catabolism and anabolism Central biochemical pathways used for both TCA cycle, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt Electron Transfer Major source of cell energy Passage of electrons releases energy Requires electron donor, electron acceptor Electron transport found in all cells Different donors, acceptors Electron energy can be stored Phosphorylation Energy Less energy than oxido-reduction Useful energy level for most cell reactions No electron donor or acceptor needed Phosphate added via dehydration Released via hydrolysis ATP most common GTP sometimes is present
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Catalysis and Enzymes Activation energy- energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state (break bonds) Enzymes - catalytic proteins; speed up biochemical reaction rates by lowering activation energy Active site- portion of an enzyme to which substrate binds. Substrate product(s) aldolase enzyme: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate Very specific for their substrate Cellulose vs. starch example Enzymes can have small non-protein molecules that help in catalysis but aren’t part of the enzyme or the substrate.
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Two types: 1. Prosthetic groups- bound tightly to their enzyme, usually covalently and permanently Example- heme group in cytochromes 2. Coenzymes- loosely bound to their enzyme, may associate with different enzymes, usually derivatives of vitamins Example- NAD+, derivative of niacin Enzymes are named either for the substrate they bind or for the chemical reaction they catalyze with the addition of the suffix –ase. For example,
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2009 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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chapters+13+14+15+outline+1 - sphate is cleaved osphate(G3P...

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