24 - PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 24...

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PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 24 The Halophilic Archaea
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Hypersaline environments are those containing salt concentrations in excess of sea water (3.5% total dissolved salts) Great Salt Lake, Utah Lake Zugm, Egypt The Great Salt Lake is essentially concentrated seawater (~10-fold). In contrast, environments such as Lake Zugm have high concentrations of carbonate minerals (originating from the surrounding rock) and a pH of 10-12 (soda lake). In soda lakes, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ are virtually absent because they precipitate out at high pH and carbonate concentrations.
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Artificial solar saltern constructed for the production of sea salts These are typically a series of shallow evaporation ponds connected by pipes and canals. As evaporation occurs, brine is directed into ponds with progressively greater salinities until sequential precipitation of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate (gypsum) and NaCl (halite) occurs. After NaCl precipitation, the concentrated potassium and magnesium chloride and sulfate brines (‘bitterns’) that remain are returned to the sea. DasSarma and Arora (2001) Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, pp. 1-9
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Aerial view of a series of seawater evaporation ponds near San Francisco, California The red-purple color is predominantly due to bacterioruberins (red and orange C 50 carotenoids) and bacteriorhodopsins (purple) in cells of Halobacterium .
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Agmenellum quadraplicatum - cyanoba c terium Fabrea sa l ina protoz o an Dunaliella sa – green alga Aphanothece halophytica cyanobacterium Hal bacterium archaeon Salt-tolerance of halophilic organisms Gradients of salinity, due to blooms of different microbial species adapted to different ranges of salinity. The salinity of sea water and the hatch range for brine shrimp are shown.
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24 - PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 24...

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