Philoxx1 Study guide

Philoxx1 Study guide - Chapter 1 Argument Analysis It is...

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Chapter 1 Argument Analysis It is the process that consists of these two elements, reconstruction and evaluation. 1. Reconstruct the argument 2. Evaluate the argument Applying argument analysis into issues 1. Rhetorical power 2. Rational strength - An argument has ration, logical, strength when it provides a good reason to believe that its conclusion is true even if it does not always persuade people - An argument lacks rational strength when it does not provide a good reason to believe its conclusion, even though it did persuade people. 3. Literacy merit Ways dealing with argument 1. The credulous person: accepting any argument 2. The contradictory person: opposing everything 3. The dogmatists: knowing everything, his belief is always the best. 4. The skeptic: “I don’t know” person. Impediments to Good Reasoning 1. Lack of Adequate Vocabulary 2. The Desire to be tolerant and Open Minded 3. Misunderstanding the point of Argument Analysis 4. Misconceptions about Truth and Rationality 5. The Use of Argument Stoppers
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Chapter 2 I. Truth and Correspondence to the Facts To say that a sentence is true is to say that things really are the way the sentence says they are. The reverse will be false. A. The Basic Idea: CP Correspondence Principle: A declarative sentence is true just in case it corresponds to the facts as they actually are. A declarative sentence is false just in case it fails to correspond to the facts as they actually are. B. A Mistaken Objection to the CP The conclusion is that we should resist the temptation to say that something is “true for” a specific group just because they believe it or because they believe it with conviction and sincerity, or even because everyone around them believes it. Argument can only work under the assumption that there is some truth – some fact – that the argument is about. C. Beyond Basic Ideas Token: Sentence tokens are specific utterances or inscription such as marks on paper or the chalkboard. Type: Sentence types are the patterns that tokens follow. Proposition: is the specific thought or idea that a declarative sentence token expresses. Revised Correspondence Principle: A proposition is true just in case it describes things as they actually are. A true proposition corresponds to the facts. If a proposition says that a certain object has a particular characteristic, then it is true just in case that object actually does have that characteristic. D. One Truth Value Principle: the Consequences of the CP
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Philoxx1 Study guide - Chapter 1 Argument Analysis It is...

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