Chapter 9 Objectives

Chapter 9 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 9...

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Christie Strawser Date Due: 5/27/08 Chapter 9 Objectives Date Submitted: 5/29/08 Chapter 9 Objectives Energy Sources Resources and Reserves each are terms to describe the amount of a natural resource present. Reserves are those known deposits that can be profitably obtained using current technology under current economic conditions. Resources are much larger quantities that include undiscovered deposits and deposits that currently can not be profitably used, although it might be feasible to do so in the future if technology or market continues to change. Reserves are smaller than resources. (181) Peat deposits are recent collections of organic material that are little changed and are 90% water, 5% carbon, and 5%volatile materials. Because of its high water content it is considered a low-grade fuel. Given sufficient thickness of overlying sediment, heat from the Earth, and the passing of geologic time, the lignite would change into bituminous coal. The major change from lignite to bituminous coal is a reduction in the water content from over 40% to about 3%. If the heat a pressure continued over time, some of the bituminous coal could have changed into a hard-grade coal known as anthracite, which is about 96% carbon, Through this combination of events, which occurred over hundreds of millions of years, present-day coal deposits were created. Most parts of the world have coal deposits. (182) Oil and natural gas, like coal, are products from the past. They probably originated from microscopic marine organisms. When these organisms dies and accumulated on the ocean bottom and were buried by sediments, their breakdown
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released oil droplets. Gradually, the muddy sediment formed rock called shale, which contained dispered oil droplets. Although shale is common, extraction from shale is difficult because the oil is not concentrated. In instances where a layer of pourous sandstone formed on top of the oil-containing shale and an impermeable layer of rock formed on top of the sandstone, concentrations of oil often form. (182) Surface mining (strip mining) involves removing the material located on top of a vein of coal, called overburden, to get at the coal beneath. Coal is usually surface mined when the overburden is less than 100 meters thick. Surface mining disrupts the landscape, as the topsoil and overburden are moved to access the coal. It is possible to minimize disturbance by reclaiming the area after mining operations are completed. However, reclamation rarely, if ever, returns
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Chapter 9 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 9...

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