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Chapter 8 Objectives

Chapter 8 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 8...

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Christie Strawser Date Due: 5/13/08 Chapter 8 Objectives Date Submitted: 5/13/08 Chapter 8 Energy and Civilization: Patterns of Consumption Every form of life and all societies require a constant input of energy. If the flow of energy through organisms or societies ceases, they stop functioning and begin to disintegrate. In hunter-gatherer cultures, nearly all human energy needs were met b y using plants and animals as food, tools, and fuel. Early in human history, people began to uses additional sources of energy to make their lives more comfortable. They domesticated plants and animals to provide a more dependable supply of food. Domesticated animals also furnished a source of energy for transportation, farming, and other tasks. Wood or other plant material provided a source of fuel for heating and cooking. Eventually, this biomass energy was used in simple technologies, such as shaping tools and extracting metals. When dense populations of humans made heavy use of wood for fuel and building materials, they eventually used up the readily available sources and had to import wood or seek alternative forms of fuel. India and some other parts of the world experienced wood shortage before Europe and North America, using animal dung as a replacement fuel source. The forest of Europe supplied sufficient amounts of wood for fuel until the thirteenth century. In North America, until the late 19 th century. These countries used coal as an alternative energy source. By 1890, coal had replaced wood as the primary energy source in North America.
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The first fossil fuel to be used extensively was coal. In the early eighteenth
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Chapter 8 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 8...

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