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Chapter 4 Objectives

Chapter 4 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 4...

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Christie Strawser Date Due: 4/15/08 Chapter 4 Objectives Date Submitted: 4/15/08 Chapter 4: Matter, Energy, and Environment “Science is a process used to solve problems or develop an understanding of nature that involves testing possible answers.” “ Scientific method is a way of gathering information (facts) about the world by forming possible solutions to questions (hypotheses), followed by the rigorous testing to determine if the proposed solutions are valid.” (62) The scientific method involves several different elements that include observation , which “occurs when we use our senses or an extension of our sense (microscope, tape recorder, x-ray, thermometer) to record an event; Questioning and Exploring (which come from question about the observation); Constructing a Hypotheses . “ A Hypothesis is a statement that provides a possible answer to a question or an explanation for an observation that can be tested.”(64) “Hypotheses must be logical and account for all the relevant information currently available, allow one to predict future events, and be testable.” (64) If a hypothesis cannot be tested it is “mere speculation.”(64) Testing Hypotheses involves either proving or disproving a hypothesis. “If you disprove the hypothesis, it is rejected and a new hypothesis must be constructed.”(64) “Science always allows for the questioning of ideas and the substitution for new ones that more completely describe what is known at a particular point in time (64).” “An Experiment is a re-creation of an event or occurrence in a way that enables a scientist to support or disprove a hypothesis. This can be difficult because a particular event may involve a great many happenings called variables (64).” The best experimental design is a controlled experiment in which two groups differ in only one way. (64) The control group live in “Normal conditions” and the experimental group would live in a proposed “solution environment”. “The results of a well-designed experiment should be able to support or disprove a hypothesis (64).” Sometimes the results of an experiment are
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inconclusive, in which case a NEW experiment must be conducted or that more information must be collected. (64) Large amounts of information are often required to make a valid decision on a hypothesis. (65) Reproducibility is when independent investigators reproduce experiments to see if they get the same results. “If a hypothesis is supported by many experiments and by different investigators, it is considered reliable (65).” The Development of Theories and Laws
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Chapter 4 Objectives - Christie Strawser Chapter 4...

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