FINAL EXAM NOTES
6/6/07 FINAL VERSION
The final exam will be approximately 300 points, and will be divided into roughly 200 points from weeks 7-10
and 100 points from weeks 1-6.
The following list gives you a specific description of the areas that will be
covered in the final from weeks 7 to 10 of the class, and identifies the relevant portions of the 1
exam notes that will be covered in the final.
Some problems from Problem Sets 7-10, or slight variations on these problems, may be on the exam.
A number of questions will be based on the concepts, explanations, and important facts presented in lecture
during weeks 7-10. Some (but not all) of these concepts, explanations, and facts are mentioned below.
. Know the sequence of reactions, structure of each molecule, use of ATP, NAD
, FAD, NADPH, etc., and
subcellular localization (cytosol, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, etc.) for the following:
of the pentose phosphate pathway (= the phosphogluconate pathway; see lecture
) you should know either the name or the structure of each molecule, the use of NADP
other products/reactants at each step.
need to memorize the
pentose phosphate pathway, but you should know that the general function of the non-oxidative branch is to
return the carbons of the 5 carbon sugar ribose-5-P to intermediates in the glycolytic reaction sequence.
You should also know that the non-oxidative branch requires transaldolase and transketolase, and that the
transketolase requires a thiamine pyrophosphate prosthetic group.
Fatty acid biosynthesis starting with 2 acetyl CoA in the cytosol and ending with the formation of
The pathway for the transport of acetyl CoA from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol; the pathway for
the return of oxaloacetate to the mitochondria via malic enzyme and pyruvate (see
that the transfer of acetyl CoA from matrix to cytosol is driven by 1 ATP hydrolysis and that, in the return of
oxaloacetate to the matrix, one NADH is converted to NADPH at the expense of 1 ATP hydrolysis.
Amino Acid Catabolism:
Be able to reproduce the reactions which convert a dietary amino acid to
keto acid (transamination with production of glutamate from
KG) and the oxidative deamination reaction
which converts glutamate to
KG plus NH
(glutamate dehydrogenase) (that is, know the reactions at the
). Be able to reproduce the carbamoyl P synthetase reaction and all reactions of the urea
cycle (see lecture
handout # 27
). Know that 18 of the
keto acids from the 20 common amino acids either
already are, or can be converted to, a TCA cycle intermediate or pyruvate.
Know the overall cost of
excreting nitrogen as urea rather than as NH
(4 ATP equivalents per urea) and why terrestrial vertebrates
needed to evolve the energetically expensive urea synthesis pathway for nitrogen disposal while fish excrete