FINAL EXAM NOTES
The final exam will be approximately 300 points, and will be divided into roughly 200 points from weeks 7-10
and 100 points from weeks 1-6.
The following list gives you a specific description of the areas that will be
covered in the final from weeks 7 to 10 of the class, and identifies the relevant portions of the 1
midterm exam notes that will be covered in the final.
Some problems from Problem Sets 7-10, or slight variations on these problems, may be on the exam.
. A number of questions will be based on the concepts, explanations, and important facts presented in
lecture during weeks 7-10. Some (but not all) of these concepts, explanations, and facts are
. Know the sequence of reactions, structure of each molecule, use of ATP, NAD, FAD, NADPH, etc., and
subcellular localization (cytosol, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, etc.) for the
Amino Acid Catabolism:
Be able to reproduce the reactions which convert a dietary amino acid to
keto acid (transamination with production of glutamate from aKG) and the oxidative deamination reaction
which converts glutamate to aKG plus NH
(glutamate dehydrogenase) (that is, know the reactions at
the top of
). Be able to reproduce the carbamoyl P synthetase reaction and all reactions of
the urea cycle (see lecture
handout # 27
Know that 18 of the a keto acids from the 20 common amino
acids either already are, or can be converted to, a TCA cycle intermediate or pyruvate (and so can be
used for glucose synthesis).
Know the overall cost of excreting nitrogen as urea rather than as NH
ATP equivalents per urea) and why terrestrial vertebrates needed to evolve the energetically expensive
urea synthesis pathway for nitrogen disposal while fish excrete NH
directly through their gills.
the advantage to reptiles and birds of excreting nitrogen as uric acid, a compound that requires even
more ATP equivalents to produce than does urea.
Gluconeogenesis: synthesis of new glucose in the liver starting from pyruvate or any TCA cycle
intermediate in the mitochondrial matrix and ending with free glucose in the cytosol.
Know the net
consumption of ATP required to drive glucose synthesis from two lactate molecules (6 ATP).
pyruvate and TCA cycle intermediates for gluconeogenesis are obtained mainly from the catabolism of
body protein (mostly muscle).
Glycogen synthesis: synthesis of glycogen from glucose-6-P in the cytosol, including the point on the
(glucose)n polymer (i.e., the 4 OH group) to which carbon one of the entering glucose attaches.
the number of net ATP equivalents driving this incorporation (1 ATP).